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In experiment I, alpha-2 receptor antagonists piperoxane, yohimbine and agonists [clonidine, norepinephrine NE ] were infused into various locations in the ventricular system of the brain, including the locus coeruleus region, and motor activity was measured. Activity was measured principally in a swim test but spontaneous ambulatory activity was also recorded while drugs were being infused.

When infused into the locus coeruleus region, small doses of the antagonists piperoxane and yohimbine depressed activity in the swim test while infusion of the agonists clonidine and NE had the opposite effect of stimulating activity. These effects were highly specific to the region of the locus coeruleus, since infusions of these drugs into other nearby locations in the ventricular system or use of larger doses had different, often opposite effects.

This was especially true of clonidine and NE which profoundly depressed activity when infused posterior to the locus coeruleus, particularly over the dorsal vagal complex. Infusion of small doses of these drugs into the lateral ventricle had effects similar to infusion into the locus coeruleus region, though less pronounced. Changes in spontaneous motor activity were also observed, but this measure differentiated the groups less well than did the swim test.

In experiment II, the predominantly postsynaptic receptor agonists isoproterenol beta agonist and phenylephrine alpha-1 agonist were infused into the ventricular system. Since infusions of piperoxane and yohimbine into the locus coeruleus that decreased activity in experiment I increase the release of NE by blocking alpha-2 inhibitory receptors on cell bodies and dendrites of the locus coeruleus, experiment II tested whether ventricular infusion of predominantly postsynaptic receptor agonists would also decrease activity in the swim test.

Swimming activity in marine fish. Marine fish are capable of swimming long distances in annual migrations; they are also capable of high-speed dashes of short duration, and they can occupy small home territories for long periods with little activity. There is a large effect of fish size on the distance fish migrate at slow swimming speeds. When chased by a fishing trawl the effect of fish size on swimming performance can decide their fate. The identity and thickness of muscle used at each speed and evidence for the timing of myotomes used during the body movement cycle can be detected using electromyogram EMG electrodes.

The cross-sectional area of muscle needed to maintain different swimming speeds can be predicted by relating the swimming drag force to the muscle force. At maximum swimming speed one completed cycle of swimming force is derived in sequence from the whole cross-sectional area of the muscles along the two sides of the fish.

This and other aspects of the swimming cycle suggest that each myotome might be responsible for generating forces involved in particular stages of the tail sweep. The thick myotomes at the head end shorten during the peak thrust of the tail blade whereas the thinner myotomes nearer the tail generate stiffness appropriate for transmission of these forces and reposition the tail for the next cycle.

Swimming and other activities : applied aspects of fish swimming performance. Human activities such as hydropower development, water withdrawals, and commercial fisheries often put fish species at risk. Engineered solutions designed to protect species or their life stages are frequently based on assumptions about swimming performance and behaviors.

In many cases, however, the appropriate data to support these designs are either unavailable or misapplied. This article provides an overview of the state of knowledge of fish swimming performance — where the data come from and how they are applied — identifying both gaps in knowledge and common errors in application, with guidance on how to avoid repeating mistakes, as well as suggestions for further study. Although aerobic training has been shown to affect the lactate transport of skeletal muscle, there is no information concerning the effect of continuous aerobic training on spontaneous physical activity SPA.

Because every movement in daily life i. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 12 weeks of continuous aerobic training in individualized intensity on SPA of rats and their gene expressions of monocarboxylate transporters MCT 1 and 4 in soleus oxidative and white gastrocnemius glycolytic muscles.

We also analyzed the effect of continuous aerobic training on aerobic and anaerobic parameters using the lactate minimum test LMT. After the experimental period, SPA of rats was measured using a gravimetric method. In essence, aerobic training is effective in maintaining SPA, but did not prevent the decline of aerobic capacity and anaerobic performance, leading us to propose that the decline of SPA is not fully attributed to a deterioration of physical properties.

Changes in SPA were concomitant with changes in MCT1 expression in the soleus muscle of trained rats, suggestive of an additional adaptive response toward increased lactate clearance. This result is in line with our observation showing a better equilibrium on lactate production-remotion during the continuous exercise LMT. We propose an approach to combat the decline of SPA of rats in their home.

Full Text Available Although aerobic training has been shown to affect the lactate transport of skeletal muscle, there is no information concerning the effect of continuous aerobic training on spontaneous physical activity SPA. SPA is generated by skeletal muscle, we think that it is possible that an improvement of SPA could affect the physiological properties of muscle with regard to lactate transport.

We propose an approach to combat the decline of SPA of rats in their. Swimming training prevents coronary endothelial dysfunction in ovariectomized spontaneously hypertensive rats. Full Text Available Estrogen deficiency and hypertension are considered major risk factors for the development of coronary heart disease.

On the other hand, exercise training is considered an effective form to prevent and treat cardiovascular diseases. However, the effects of swimming training SW on coronary vascular reactivity in female ovariectomized hypertensive rats are not known. We aimed to evaluate the effects of SW on endothelium-dependent coronary vasodilation in ovariectomized hypertensive rats.

Cardiac oxidative stress was evaluated in situ by dihydroethidium fluorescence, while the expression of antioxidant enzymes SOD-2 and catalase and their activities were assessed by western blotting and spectrophotometry, respectively.

These effects were prevented by SW, and were associated with a decrease in oxidative stress. However, no significant difference was found in the activity of these enzymes. In conclusion, SW prevented the endothelial dysfunction in the coronary bed of ovariectomized SHR associated with an increase in the expression of antioxidant enzymes, and therefore may prevent coronary heart disease in hypertensive postmenopausal women.

Anisotropic swim stress in active matter with nematic order. We demonstrate this relationship with ABPs that achieve nematic orientational order via a bulk external field. The anisotropy, defined as the ratio of the maximum to the minimum of the three principal stresses, is shown to grow exponentially with the strength of the external field.

Since ABPs have no friction with a wall, the difference between the normal and tangential stress components—the normal stress difference—generates a net flow of ABPs along the wall, which is a generic property of active matter systems. Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine whether aerobic training decreases superoxide levels, increases nitric oxide levels, and improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation in the aortas of spontaneously hypertensive rats.

After a week sedentary or aerobic training period, the rats were euthanized. The thoracic aortas were removed to evaluate the vasodilator response to acetylcholine to M with or without preincubation with L-NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride L-NAME; M in vitro. The aortic tissue was also used to assess the levels of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide oxidase subunit isoforms 1 and 4 proteins, as well as the superoxide and nitrite contents.

Blood pressure was measured using a computerized tail-cuff system. Additionally, in the SHRtr group, superoxide levels were significantly decreased, nitric oxide bioavailability was improved, and the levels of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide oxidase subunit isoform 4 protein were decreased compared to the SHRsd group. Exercise training had no effect on the blood pressure of the WKYtr group. Spontaneous Gamma Activity in Schizophrenia. A major goal of translational neuroscience is to identify neural circuit abnormalities in neuropsychiatric disorders that can be studied in animal models to facilitate the development of new treatments.

Oscillations in the gamma band Hz of the electroencephalogram have received considerable interest as the basic mechanisms underlying these oscillations are understood, and gamma abnormalities have been found in schizophrenia SZ. Animal models of SZ based on hypofunction of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor NMDAR demonstrate increased spontaneous broadband gamma power, but this phenomenon has not been identified clearly in patients with SZ.

To examine spontaneous gamma power and its relationship to evoked gamma oscillations in the auditory cortex of patients with SZ. We performed a cross-sectional study including 24 patients with chronic SZ and 24 matched healthy control participants at the Veterans Affairs Boston Healthcare System from January 1, , through December 31, Electroencephalograms were obtained during auditory steady-state stimulation at multiple frequencies 20, 30, and 40 Hz and during a resting state in 18 participants in each group.

Electroencephalographic activity in the auditory cortex was estimated using dipole source localization. Auditory steady-state response ASSR measures included the phase-locking factor and evoked power. Spontaneous gamma power was measured as induced non-phase-locked gamma power in the ASSR data and as total gamma power in the resting-state data.

The mean [SD] broadband-induced Swimming as physical activity and recreation for women. Full Text Available The present study reviews all data that establish swimming as an everyday lifestyle and recreational activity for women, since it promotes wellness, well-being and longevity. Swimming as a natural, physical activity is one of the most effective ways of exercise, since it affects and work outs the whole body.

It is the most suitable sport for all age groups, because it combines beneficial results, for both body and soul and is also a low-risk-injury physical exercise. Aim of this study is to record the effect of recreational swimming in physical condition indexes and in quality of life in women. In particular to record the benefits, since studies have shown that swimming can help in prevention and treatment of chronic diseases and improves quality of life, of well-being and longevity.

Results of all studies showed that swimming , as a great natural recreational activity has multiple beneficial effects on the female body that are not limited to the physical characteristics but are extended to the mental ones. Challenges for the application and development fields of this particular method of exercise, are the quality of service provided and the staffing of departments and programs in multiple carriers, private or public.

Researchers and writers agree that there are great prospects for growth for women through partnerships, with programs and systematic research in the field of recreational swimming. Swimming , which is the coordinated and harmonic movement of the human body inside a liquid medium by means of the combined action of the superior and inferior limbs, is a physical activity which is diffused throughout the whole world and it is practiced by healthy and non-healthy subjects.

Swimming is one of the physical activities with less contraindications and, with limited exceptions, can be suggested to individuals of both sexes and of every age range, including the most advanced. Swimming requires energy both for the floating process and for the anterograde progression, with a different and variable osteo-arthro-muscular involvement according to the different styles.

The moderate aerobic training typical of swimming is useful for diabetic and hypertensive individuals, for people with painful conditions of rachis, as also for obese and orthopaedic patients. Motor activity inside the water reduces the risk of muscular-tendinous lesions and, without loading the joints in excess, requires the harmonic activation of the whole human musculature.

Swimming is an activity requiring multiple abilities, ranging from a sense of equilibrium to that of rhythm, from reaction speed to velocity, from joint mobility to resistance. The structured interest for swimming in the perspective of human health from the beginning of civilization, as described in this contribution, underlines the relevance attributed to this activity in the course of human history.

The effects of swimming pattern on the energy use of gilthead seabream Sparus aurata L. Oxygen consumption was measured for gilthead seabream Sparus aurata during spontaneous and forced activities. All swimming characteristics During spontaneous activity , 2.

This indicates that spontaneous swimming costs may be considerably higher compared with those of a fixed swimming speed. However, comparing A relationship between swimming speed Full Text Available Background: Triathletes typically wear a wetsuit during the swim portion of an event, but it is not clear if muscle activity is influenced by wearing a wetsuit. Purpose: To investigate if shoulder muscle activity was influenced by wearing a full-sleeve wetsuit vs. Each condition lasted 90 seconds with data collected during the last 60 seconds.

Resistance setting was self-selected and remained constant for both conditions. Stroke rate was controlled at 60 strokes per minute by having participants match a metronome. NW p0. A forced damped oscillation framework for undulatory swimming provides new insights into how propulsion arises in active and passive swimming.

A fundamental issue in locomotion is to understand how muscle forcing produces apparently complex deformation kinematics leading to movement of animals like undulatory swimmers. The question of whether complicated muscle forcing is required to create the observed deformation kinematics is central to the understanding of how animals control movement.

In this work, a forced damped oscillation framework is applied to a chain-link model for undulatory swimming to understand how forcing leads to deformation and movement. A unified understanding of swimming , caused by muscle contractions " active " swimming or by forces imparted by the surrounding fluid "passive" swimming , is obtained.

We show that the forcing triggers the first few deformation modes of the body, which in turn cause the translational motion. We show that relatively simple forcing patterns can trigger seemingly complex deformation kinematics that lead to movement.

For given muscle activation , the forcing frequency relative to the natural frequency of the damped oscillator is important for the emergent deformation characteristics of the body. The proposed approach also leads to a qualitative understanding of optimal deformation kinematics for fast swimming.

These results, based on a chain-link model of swimming , are confirmed by fully resolved computational fluid dynamics CFD simulations. Prior results from the literature on the optimal value of stiffness for maximum speed are explained. Full Text Available A fundamental issue in locomotion is to understand how muscle forcing produces apparently complex deformation kinematics leading to movement of animals like undulatory swimmers.

Associative memory model with spontaneous neural activity. We propose a novel associative memory model wherein the neural activity without an input i. Spontaneous neural activity without an input shows chaotic dynamics but keeps some similarity with evoked activities , as reported in recent experimental studies.

Active hippocampal networks undergo spontaneous synaptic modification. Full Text Available The brain is self-writable; as the brain voluntarily adapts itself to a changing environment, the neural circuitry rearranges its functional connectivity by referring to its own activity.

How the internal activity modifies synaptic weights is largely unknown, however. Here we report that spontaneous activity causes complex reorganization of synaptic connectivity without any external or artificial stimuli. Under physiologically relevant ionic conditions, CA3 pyramidal cells in hippocampal slices displayed spontaneous spikes with bistable slow oscillations of membrane potential, alternating between the so-called UP and DOWN states. The generation of slow oscillations did not require fast synaptic transmission, but their patterns were coordinated by local circuit activity.

In the course of generating spontaneous activity , individual neurons acquired bidirectional long-lasting synaptic modification. The spontaneous synaptic plasticity depended on a rise in intracellular calcium concentrations of postsynaptic cells, but not on NMDA receptor activity. The direction and amount of the plasticity varied depending on slow oscillation patterns and synapse locations, and thus, they were diverse in a network.

Once this global synaptic refinement occurred, the same neurons now displayed different patterns of spontaneous activity , which in turn exhibited different levels of synaptic plasticity. Thus, active networks continuously update their internal states through ongoing synaptic plasticity. With computational simulations, we suggest that with this slow oscillation-induced plasticity, a recurrent network converges on a more specific state, compared to that with spike timing-dependent plasticity alone.

Locomotor activity during the frenzy swim : analysing early swimming behaviour in hatchling sea turtles. Swimming effort of hatchling sea turtles varies across species. In this study we analysed how swim thrust is produced in terms of power stroke rate, mean maximum thrust per power stroke and percentage of time spent power stroking throughout the first 18 h of swimming after entering the water, in both loggerhead and flatback turtle hatchlings and compared this with previous data from green turtle hatchlings.

Loggerhead and green turtle hatchlings had similar power stroke rates and percentage of time spent power stroking throughout the trial, although mean maximum thrust was always significantly higher in green hatchlings, making them the most vigorous swimmers in our three-species comparison. Flatback hatchlings, however, were different from the other two species, with overall lower values in all three swimming variables.

Their swimming effort dropped significantly during the first 2 h and kept decreasing significantly until the end of the trial at 18 h. These results support the hypothesis that ecological factors mould the swimming behaviour of hatchling sea turtles, with predator pressure being important in determining the strategy used to swim offshore.

Loggerhead and green turtle hatchlings seem to adopt an intensely vigorous and energetically costly frenzy swim that would quickly take them offshore into the open ocean in order to reduce their exposure to near-shore aquatic predators. Flatback hatchlings, however, are restricted in geographic distribution and remain within the continental shelf region where predator pressure is probably relatively constant.

For this reason, flatback hatchlings might use only part of their energy reserves during a less vigorous frenzy phase, with lower overall energy expenditure during the first day compared with loggerhead and green turtle hatchlings. Spontaneous emission from active dielectric microstructures.

This paper addresses the methods of quantum electrodynamics of dielectric media which enable calculation of the local rate of spontaneous emission in active microstructures Full Text Available Using functional multineuron imaging with single-cell resolution, we examined how hippocampal networks by themselves change the spatiotemporal patterns of spontaneous activity during the course of emitting spontaneous activity.

When extracellular ionic concentrations were changed to those that mimicked in vivo conditions, spontaneous activity was increased in active cell number and activity frequency. When ionic compositions were restored to the control conditions, the activity level returned to baseline, but the weighted spatial dispersion of active cells, as assessed by entropy-based metrics, did not.

Thus, the networks can modify themselves by altering the internal structure of their correlated activity , even though they as a whole maintained the same level of activity in space and time. Morphological correlates of swimming activity in wild largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides in their natural environment. Individual variation in morphology has been linked to organismal performance in numerous taxa.

Recently, the relationship between functional morphology and swimming performance in teleost fishes has been studied in laboratory experiments. In this study, we evaluate the relationship between morphology and swimming activity of wild largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides during the reproductive period, providing the first data derived on free- swimming fish not exposed to forced swim trials in the laboratory.

Sixteen male largemouth bass were angled from their nests, telemetered, and subsequently monitored by a whole-lake acoustic hydrophone array with sub-meter accuracy. Additionally, eleven morphological measurements were taken from digital images of each fish. A principal components analysis of the morphological measurements described PC1 was characterized by measures of overall body stoutness, PC2 was characterized by measures of the length and depth of the caudal region, and PC3 characterized individuals with relatively large anterior portions of the body and relatively small caudal areas.

Of these variables, only PC3 showed significant relationships to swimming activity throughout the parental care period. PC3 was negatively correlated with multiple measures of swimming activity across the parental care period. Furthermore, swimming performance of individual male bass was noted to be repeatable across the parental care period indicating that this phenomenon extends beyond the laboratory.

Plasma renin activity , aldosterone and catecholamine levels when swimming and running. The purpose of this study was to determine the response of plasma renin activity PRA , plasma aldosterone concentration PAC and catecholamines to two graded exercises differing by posture. Seven male subjects years performed successively a running rest on a treadmill and a swimming test in a m swimming pool. Each exercise was increased in severity in 5-min steps with intervals of 1 min.

Oxygen consumption, heart rate and blood lactate, measured every 5 min, showed a similar progression in energy expenditure until exhaustion, but there was a shorter time to exhaustion in the last step of the running test. The PRA increase was higher after the running test The PAC increase was slightly greater after running pg X ml-1 than swimming pg X ml-1 , buth the difference was not significant.

Plasma catecholamine was higher after the swimming test. These results suggest that the volume shift induced by the supine position and water pressure during swimming decreased the PRA response. The association after swimming compared to running of a decreased PRA and an enhanced catecholamine response rule out a strict dependence of renin release under the effect of plasma catecholamines and is evidence of the major role of neural pathways for renin secretion during physical exercise.

Blood sugar in the human body is very important, as it is a source of energy for humans. The research that has been done aims to determine the effect of physical activity on fasting blood sugar. This research is a quasi-experimental research. Blood was taken before and after doing physical exercise activity of meter breaststroke swimming.

Data collection was conducted with tests and measurements. Exercise and low-fat diets are common lifestyle modifications used for the treatment of hypertension besides drug therapy. However, unrestrained low-fat diets may result in deficiencies of low-unsaturated fatty acids and carry contingent risks of delaying neurodevelopment. While aerobic exercise shows positive neuroprotective effects, it is still unclear whether exercise could alleviate the impairment of neurodevelopment that may be induced by certain low-fat diets.

We found that performance in the Morris water maze was reduced and long-term potentiation in the hippocampus was suppressed by the diet, while a combination treatment of exercise and diet alleviated the impairment induced by the specific low-fat diet. Moreover, the combination treatment effectively increased the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor BDNF and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor NMDAR , which were both down-regulated by the low-soybean-oil diet in the hippocampus of developing SHR.

Fueling the engine: induction of AMP- activated protein kinase in trout skeletal muscle by swimming. AMP- activated protein kinase AMPK is well known to be induced by exercise and to mediate important metabolic changes in the skeletal muscle of mammals. Despite the physiological importance of exercise as a modulator of energy use by locomotory muscle, the regulation of this enzyme by swimming has.

Synaptic model for spontaneous activity in developing networks. Spontaneous rhythmic activity occurs in many developing neural networks. The activity in these hyperexcitable networks is comprised of recurring "episodes" consisting of "cycles" of high activity that alternate with "silent phases" with little or no activity. We introduce a new model of synaptic We show that our model can reproduce spontaneous rhythmic activity with the same general features as observed in experiments, including a positive correlation between Accelerometer-derived activity correlates with volitional swimming speed in lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens.

Thiem, J. Quantifying fine-scale locomotor behaviours associated with different activities is challenging for free- swimming fish. Biologging and biotelemetry tools can help address this problem. An open channel flume was used to generate volitionalswimming speed Us estimates of cultured lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens Rafinesque, and these were paired withsimultaneously recorded accelerometer-derived metrics of activity obtained from three types of data-storage tags.

This studyexamined whether a predictive relationship could be established between four different activity metrics tail-beat frequency TBF , tail-beat acceleration amplitude TBAA , overall dynamic body acceleration ODBA , and vectorial dynamic body acceleration VeDBA and the swimming speed of A. Volitional Us of sturgeon ranged from 0. Swimming speed increased linearly with all accelerometer-derived metrics, and when all tag types werecombined, Us increased 0.

Predictive relationships varied among tag types and tag-specific parameter estimates of Us arepresented for all metrics. This use of acceleration data-storage tags demonstrated their applicability for the field quantificationof sturgeon swimming speed. Voluntary breath holding affects spontaneous brain activity measured by magnetoencephalography. Spontaneous brain activity was measured by multichannel magnetoencephalography MEG during voluntary breath holds.

Significant changes in the activity are limited to the alpha rhythm: 0. The area of alpha activity shifts slightly toward fronto-. Spontaneous Electrical Activity in the Nervous System and its The present study was carried out to examine the effects of biogenic amines on the spontaneous electrical activity of the nervous system in the silkworm Bombyx mori. The activity recorded from different segments of the ventral nerve cord differed in the frequency and number of spike categories firing.

The activity was highest Omega-3 fatty acids have antidepressant activity in forced swimming test in Wistar rats. Forced swimming test is used to induce a characteristic behavior of immobility in rats, which resembles depression in humans to some extent. We evaluated the effect of omega-3 fatty acids alone as well as compared it with the standard antidepressant therapy with fluoxetine in both acute and chronic studies.

In acute study, omega-3 fatty acids were given in single dose 2 h prior to the test while in chronic study omega-3 fatty acids were given daily for a period of 28 days. All animals were subjected to a min pretest followed 24 h later by a 5-min test.

A time sampling method was used to score the behavioral activity in each group. The results revealed that in acute study, omega-3 fatty acids do not have any significant effect in forced swimming test. However, in chronic study, omega-3 fatty acids affect the immobility and swimming behavior significantly when compared with control p fluoxetine is significantly more than that of fluoxetine alone in changing the behavioral activity of rats in forced swimming test.

It leads to the conclusion that omega-3 fatty acids have antidepressant activity per se, and the combination of fluoxetine and omega-3 fatty acids has more antidepressant efficacy than fluoxetine alone in forced swimming test in Wistar rats. Spatial diversity of spontaneous activity in the cortex. Full Text Available The neocortex is a layered sheet across which a basic organization is thought to widely apply. The variety of spontaneous activity patterns is similar throughout the cortex, consistent with the notion of a basic cortical organization.

However, the basic organization is only an outline which needs adjustments and additions to account for the structural and functional diversity across cortical layers and areas. Such diversity suggests that spontaneous activity is spatially diverse in any particular behavioral state. Accordingly, this review summarizes the laminar and areal diversity in cortical activity during fixation and slow oscillations, and the effects of attention, anesthesia and plasticity on the cortical distribution of spontaneous activity.

Among questions that remain open, characterizing the spatial diversity in spontaneous membrane potential may help elucidate how differences in circuitry among cortical regions supports their varied functions. More work is also needed to understand whether cortical spontaneous activity not only reflects cortical circuitry, but also contributes to determining the outcome of plasticity, so that it is itself a factor shaping the functional diversity of the cortex. Differential susceptibility of horizontal and vertical swimming activity to cadmium exposure in a gammaridean amphipod Gammarus lawrencianus.

In this study two indices of swimming behavior horizontal and vertical swimming activity in a gammaridean amphipod Gammarus lawrencianus were examined for their sensitivity to Cd exposure. Subsequent to exposure, video surveillance of survivors held within grooved rings or clear boxes was used to assess horizontal swimming activity percentage of time mobile and vertical swimming activity number of surfacings , respectively. Based on fluid dynamic considerations, it is speculated that of the two behaviors, vertical swimming activity is more sensitive to Cd exposure because of the presumed greater energetic costs associated with producing enough thrust to attain the lift required to make a vertical ascent into the water.

Uncovering intrinsic modular organization of spontaneous brain activity in humans. Full Text Available The characterization of topological architecture of complex brain networks is one of the most challenging issues in neuroscience. Slow spontaneous fluctuations of the blood oxygen level dependent BOLD signal in functional magnetic resonance imaging are thought to be potentially important for the reflection of spontaneous neuronal activity.

Many studies have shown that these fluctuations are highly coherent within anatomically or functionally linked areas of the brain. However, the underlying topological mechanisms responsible for these coherent intrinsic or spontaneous fluctuations are still poorly understood. Here, we apply modern network analysis techniques to investigate how spontaneous neuronal activities in the human brain derived from the resting-state BOLD signals are topologically organized at both the temporal and spatial scales.

We first show that the spontaneous brain functional networks have an intrinsically cohesive modular structure in which the connections between regions are much denser within modules than between them. Specifically, we demonstrate that the module-specific topological features can not be captured by means of computing the corresponding global network parameters, suggesting a unique organization within each module.

Together, our results demonstrate the highly organized modular architecture and associated topological properties in. Full Text Available Dopamine modulates a variety of animal behaviors that range from sleep and learning to courtship and aggression. Besides its well-known phasic firing to natural reward, a substantial number of dopamine neurons DANs are known to exhibit ongoing intrinsic activity in the absence of an external stimulus.

Strikingly, genetic manipulation of basal DAN activity resulted in behavioral alterations in the fly, providing critical evidence that links spontaneous DAN activity to behavioral states. Furthermore, circuit-level analyses have started to reveal cellular and molecular mechanisms that mediate or regulate spontaneous DAN activity. Through reviewing recent findings in different animals with the major focus on flies, we will discuss potential roles of this physiological phenomenon in directing animal behaviors.

Muscle activation behavior in a swimming exergame: Differences by experience and gaming velocity. The effects of playing intensity and prior exergame and sport experience on the activation patterns of upper limb muscles during a swimming exergame were investigated.

Surface electromyography of Biceps Brachii, Triceps Brachii, Latissimus Dorsi, Upper Trapezius, and Erector Spinae of twenty participants was recorded, and the game play was divided into normal and fast. Mean muscle activation , normalized to maximum voluntary isometric contraction MVIC , ranged from 4.

These behaviors are likely to happen when players understand the game mechanics, even after a short exposure. Such evaluation might help in adjusting the physical demands of sport exergames, for safe and meaningful experiences. All rights reserved. It is shown that acute treatment with fluoxetine does not produce any antidepressant effects in mice following stress of 14 days while the sub-chronic injections of fluoxetine result in more deep depressive-like behavior. In 28 daily stressed mice, antidepressant effect of fluoxetine is observed independently of the injection rates.

Amitriptyline demonstrates the antidepressant activity regardless of the duration of stress or administration scheduling, but at the same time the severity of anti-immobilization effect of amitriptyline in stressed mice is weaker in compare to non-stressed trails. Thus, the injection rates and duration of unpredictable mild chronic stress are the parameters that determine the efficiency of antidepressants in the mouse forced swimming test. Learning shapes spontaneous activity itinerating over memorized states.

Full Text Available Learning is a process that helps create neural dynamical systems so that an appropriate output pattern is generated for a given input. Often, such a memory is considered to be included in one of the attractors in neural dynamical systems, depending on the initial neural state specified by an input.

Neither neural activities observed in the absence of inputs nor changes caused in the neural activity when an input is provided were studied extensively in the past. However, recent experimental studies have reported existence of structured spontaneous neural activity and its changes when an input is provided. With this background, we propose that memory recall occurs when the spontaneous neural activity changes to an appropriate output activity upon the application of an input, and this phenomenon is known as bifurcation in the dynamical systems theory.

After the learning process is complete, the neural dynamics are shaped so that it changes appropriately with each input. As the number of memorized patterns is increased, the generated spontaneous neural activity after learning shows itineration over the previously learned output patterns. This theoretical finding also shows remarkable agreement with recent experimental reports, where spontaneous neural activity in the visual cortex without stimuli itinerate over evoked patterns by previously applied signals.

Our results suggest that itinerant spontaneous activity can be a natural outcome of successive learning of several patterns, and it facilitates bifurcation of the network when an input is provided. Determination of 16N and 19O activities in loop water of swimming pool reactor.

Measurements of activities for 16 N and 19 O nuclei in the loop water of swimming pool reactor at China Institute of Atomic Energy were carried out. In order to verify the experiment results, a calculation for same purpose was also performed. The results show their coincidence is well in uncertainty range. Efffects of vigabatrin on spontaneous locomotor activity of rats.

This decrease was measurable hours after injection and still became more. Specific mobility abilities showed at m kayaking, m swimming the crawl and m running show a great variety of the central tendency measures minimum, maximum, mean, Std. Spontaneous neutrophil activation in HTLV-1 infected patients.

In vivo activation of neutrophils observed in HTLV-1 infected subjects is likely to be the same process that causes spontaneous IFN-gamma production, or it may partially result from direct IFN-gamma stimulation. Embedding responses in spontaneous neural activity shaped through sequential learning. Full Text Available Recent experimental measurements have demonstrated that spontaneous neural activity in the absence of explicit external stimuli has remarkable spatiotemporal structure.

This spontaneous activity has also been shown to play a key role in the response to external stimuli. To better understand this role, we proposed a viewpoint, "memories-as-bifurcations," that differs from the traditional "memories-as-attractors" viewpoint. Memory recall from the memories-as-bifurcations viewpoint occurs when the spontaneous neural activity is changed to an appropriate output activity upon application of an input, known as a bifurcation in dynamical systems theory, wherein the input modifies the flow structure of the neural dynamics.

Learning, then, is a process that helps create neural dynamical systems such that a target output pattern is generated as an attractor upon a given input. Based on this novel viewpoint, we introduce in this paper an associative memory model with a sequential learning process. The neural dynamics shaped through the learning exhibit different bifurcations to make the requested targets stable upon an increase in the input, and the neural activity in the absence of input shows chaotic dynamics with occasional approaches to the memorized target patterns.

These results suggest that these dynamics facilitate the bifurcations to each target attractor upon application of the corresponding input, which thus increases the capacity for learning. This theoretical finding about the behavior of the spontaneous neural activity is consistent with recent experimental observations in which the neural activity without stimuli wanders among patterns evoked by previously applied signals. In addition, the neural networks shaped by learning properly reflect the correlations of input and target-output patterns in a similar manner to those designed in.

Mechanisms of morphine enhancement of spontaneous seizure activity. High-dose opioid therapy can precipitate seizures; however, the mechanism of such a dangerous adverse effect remains poorly understood. The aim of our study was to determine whether the neuroexcitatory activity of high-dose morphine is mediated by selective stimulation of opioid receptors. Mice hippocampi were resected intact and bathed in low magnesium artificial cerebrospinal fluid to induce spontaneous seizure-like events recorded from CA1 neurons.

Application of morphine had a biphasic effect on the recorded spontaneous seizure-like events. In a low concentration 10 microM , morphine depressed electrographic seizure activity. Higher morphine concentrations 30 and microM enhanced seizure activity in an apparent dose-dependent manner.

Naloxone, a nonselective opiate antagonist blocked the proconvulsant action of morphine. Selective mu and kappa opiate receptor agonists and antagonists enhanced and suppressed the spontaneous seizure activity , respectively. On the contrary, delta opioid receptor ligands did not have an effect. The proseizure effect of morphine is mediated through selective stimulation of mu and kappa opiate receptors but not the activation of the delta receptor system.

The observed dose-dependent mechanism of morphine neuroexcitation underscores careful adjustment and individualized opioid dosing in the clinical setting. Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of regular swimming activity on the respiratory system of smokers and non-smokers.

The study included students, aged 19 to 24 years, attending weekly swimming classes. All students underwent pulmonary function testing before and after participating in a swimming program for 10 months. The percentage of CoHB level in the blood decreased in both groups. The study confirmed the positive effect of swimming on respiratory system function and the importance of promoting physical activity such as swimming among cigarette smokers as well as non-smokers.

Effects of inorganic mercury on the respiration and the swimming activity of shrimp larvae, Pandalus borealis. In order to test the sensitivity of respiration physiological and potential to mercury Hg contamination, larval shrimp Pandalus borealis were exposed to inorganic Hg ppb for 27 h in the laboratory. Oxygen consumption rates RO 2 , potential respiration determined by respiratory electron transfer system activity , ETSA , protein content, and swimming activity for zoeae III and zoeae V stages were measured.

For both zoeae stages, ETSA and protein content remained constant after 27 h exposure to ppb Hg whereas RO 2 and swimming activity decreased. This study revealed the impact of different Hg levels and different exposure times on RO 2 of shrimp larvae. The results showed that Hg disturbs a part of the respiration process without modifying the maximum activity of the enzymes involved in the ETSA assay. Therefore, the ETSA assay can not be used as a sublethal bioanalytic probe to detect Hg in short-term exposures.

Copyright c Elsevier Science B. Influence of robotic shoal size, configuration, and activity on zebrafish behavior in a free- swimming environment. In animal studies, robots have been recently used as a valid tool for testing a wide spectrum of hypotheses. These robots often exploit visual or auditory cues to modulate animal behavior. The propensity of zebrafish, a model organism in biological studies, toward fish with similar color patterns and shape has been leveraged to design biologically inspired robots that successfully attract zebrafish in preference tests.

With an aim of extending the application of such robots to field studies, here, we investigate the response of zebrafish to multiple robotic fish swimming at different speeds and in varying arrangements. A soft real-time multi-target tracking and control system remotely steers the robots in circular trajectories during the experimental trials. Our findings indicate a complex behavioral response of zebrafish to biologically inspired robots. More robots produce a significant change in salient measures of stress, with a fast robot swimming alone causing more freezing and erratic activity than two robots swimming slowly together.

In addition, fish spend more time in the proximity of a robot when they swim far apart than when the robots swim close to each other. Increase in the number of robots also significantly alters the degree of alignment of fish motion with a robot.

Results from this study are expected to advance our understanding of robot perception by live animals and aid in hypothesis-driven studies in unconstrained free- swimming environments. Modifications of spontaneous oculomotor activity in microgravitational conditions.

Investigations on spontaneous oculomotor activity were carried out prior to and after five cosmonauts and during space flight two cosmonauts on the 3rd, 5th and th days of the space flight. Recording of oculomotor activity was carried out by electrooculography on automated data acquisition and processing system "Zora" based on personal computers.

During the space flight and after it all the cosmonauts with the eyes closed or open and dark-goggled showed an essential increase of the movements' amplitude when removing the eyes into the extreme positions especially in a vertical direction, occurrence of correcting saccadic movements or nystagmus , an increase in time of fixing reactions.

A role for some MAPKs e. In the present study, we investigated the effects of a different stressor, acute forced swim stress, on the phosphorylation P state of these MAPKs in the hippocampus, neocortex, prefrontal cortex, amygdala and striatum. Results A single 15 min session of forced swimming increased P-Erk2 levels 2—3-fold in the neocortex, prefrontal cortex and striatum, but not in the hippocampus or amygdala.

P-CREB was increased in all but cortical prefrontal, neocortex areas. Conclusions Swim stress specifically and markedly. Comparison of the effects of active , passive and mixed warm ups on swimming performance. Eight male competitive swimmers completed each type of WU and, following a minute rest, performed a maximum m test on their specialised stroke.

The order of WUs was randomized and there was a 7-day period between subsequent testing sessions. The time taken to complete the m trial was the performance measure. During the minute rest, the swimmers' psychological state was assessed with the CSAI-2 questionnaire.

Swimmers had relatively low levels of anxiety and modest to high levels of self confidence for all conditions. No WU appeared to be superior to the others with respect to swimming performance. The MWU produced nearly identical values to the AWU for most variables, and was therefore found to be an appropriate alternative WU type that swimmers may use before competition.

The PWU also seemed to be appropriate, but the somewhat worse performance and lower cognitive anxiety and self confidence scores recorded, albeit non-significant, suggested that more swimmers and distances are tested before any firm conclusions regarding its effectiveness can be drawn. Brain modularity controls the critical behavior of spontaneous activity.

The human brain exhibits a complex structure made of scale-free highly connected modules loosely interconnected by weaker links to form a small-world network. These features appear in healthy patients whereas neurological diseases often modify this structure. An important open question concerns the role of brain modularity in sustaining the critical behaviour of spontaneous activity.

Here we analyse the neuronal activity of a model, successful in reproducing on non-modular networks the scaling behaviour observed in experimental data, on a modular network implementing the main statistical features measured in human brain. We show that on a modular network, regardless the strength of the synaptic connections or the modular size and number, activity is never fully scale-free.

Neuronal avalanches can invade different modules which results in an activity depression, hindering further avalanche propagation. Critical behaviour is solely recovered if inter-module connections are added, modifying the modular into a more random structure.

Taking advantage of this approach, we have investigated the recruitment of perisomatic inhibition during spontaneous hippocampal activity in vitro. Combining intracellular and extracellular recordings from pyramidal cells and interneurons, we confirm that inhibitory signals generated by basket cells can be recorded extracellularly, but our results suggest that, during spontaneous activity , eIPSPs are mostly confined to the CA3 rather than CA1 region.

CA3 eIPSPs produced the powerful time-locked inhibition of multi-unit activity expected from perisomatic inhibition. Analysis of the temporal dynamics of spike discharges relative to eIPSPs suggests significant but moderate recruitment of excitatory and inhibitory neurons within the CA3 network on a 10 ms time scale, within which neurons recruit each other through recurrent collaterals and trigger powerful feedback inhibition.

Such quantified parameters of neuronal interactions in the hippocampal network may serve as a basis for future characterisation of pathological conditions potentially affecting the interactions between excitation and inhibition in this circuit. High salt intake enhances swim stress-induced PVN vasopressin cell activation and active stress coping.

Stress contributes to many psychiatric disorders; however, responsivity to stressors can vary depending on previous or current stress exposure. Relatively innocuous heterotypic differing in type stressors can summate to result in exaggerated neuronal and behavioral responses. Here we investigated the ability of prior high dietary sodium chloride salt intake, a dehydrating osmotic stressor, to enhance neuronal and behavioral responses of mice to an acute psychogenic swim stress SS.

Further, we evaluated the contribution of the osmo-regulatory stress-related neuropeptide arginine vasopressin VP in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus PVN , one of only a few brain regions that synthesize VP. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of high dietary salt intake on responsivity to heterotypic stress and the potential contribution of VPergic-mediated neuronal activity on high salt-induced stress modulation, thereby providing insight into how dietary homeostatic and environmental psychogenic stressors might interact to facilitate psychiatric disorder vulnerability.

Fluid intake and hematological measurements were taken to quantify osmotic dehydration, and serum corticosterone levels were measured to index stress axis activation. Immunohistochemistry IHC was used to stain for the immediate early gene product c-Fos to quantify effects of SL on SS-induced activation of neurons in the PVN and extended amygdala - brain regions that are synaptically connected and implicated in responding to osmotic stress and in modulation of SS behavior, respectively.

St-Amand, L. Copper is an endogenous modulator of neural circuit spontaneous activity. For reasons that remain insufficiently understood, the brain requires among the highest levels of metals in the body for normal function. The traditional paradigm for this organ and others is that fluxes of alkali and alkaline earth metals are required for signaling, but transition metals are maintained in static, tightly bound reservoirs for metabolism and protection against oxidative stress.

Miguel A. Some Comments on Stochastic Orders and Posets. Ana F. Militino, M. Choice Functions and Rejection Sets. Field Substitution and Sequential Sampling Method. Working with too Few Samples. Angela L. Estimation of the Owen Value Based on Sampling.

Gloria Fiestras-Janeiro. Mariano J. Limit Behavior of Polya Urn Schemes. The Roll of Dices in Cryptology. As Professor Pedro Gil highlighted twenty years ago, there are several well-known mathematical branches for this purpose, including Mathematics of chance Probability and Statistics , Mathematics of communication Information Theory , and Mathematics of imprecision Fuzzy Sets Theory and others. These branches often intertwine, since different sources of uncertainty can coexist, and they are not exhaustive.

While most of the papers presented here address the three aforementioned fields, some hail from other Mathematical disciplines such as Operations Research; others, in turn, put the spotlight on real-world studies and applications. Editors and affiliations. Liberbank Oviedo Spain 2.

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Are you fucking kidding me? Reportar por inadecuado o fuente incorrecta. A favor En contra 38 42 votos. A favor En contra 23 29 votos. A favor En contra 12 12 votos. A favor En contra 6 8 votos. A favor En contra 5 13 votos. A favor En contra 4 6 votos.

A favor En contra 4 4 votos. A favor En contra 3 3 votos. A favor En contra 3 5 votos. A favor En contra 2 2 votos. A favor En contra 2 4 votos. A favor En contra 2 12 votos. A favor En contra 1 1 voto. Parte 3 de Esto indica que el equipo A es el favorito, pero se paga menos dinero si una apuesta a ellos gana.

Asimismo, se te devuelve el dinero que apuestas. Al apostar al favorito, se toman menos riesgos y, por ende, se gana menos. Al igual que las probabilidades positivas, se te devuelve la apuesta al ganar. Parte 4 de Una apuesta al equipo A paga si este equipo gana o si pierde por menos de 4 puntos. En el ejemplo, en caso de que el equipo B gane 88 a 84, es un "push" y nadie obtiene ganancias. En ocasiones, cada equipo tiene distintas comisiones. Parte 5 de Las apuestas por encima o por debajo suelen conllevar un menor riesgo y ser menos complicadas que otros tipos de apuestas.

Sin embargo, ten cuidado de consultarlo primero con tu corredor. Si vives en los EE. Se basa en las probabilidades que cada equipo tiene de ganar. En otros idiomas English: Read Odds. Deutsch: Wettquoten lesen.

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A favor En contra 1 consultarlo primero con tu corredor. Parte 3 de Esto indica al equipo A paga si este equipo gana o si un "push" y nadie obtiene. A favor En contra 5 3 votos. A favor En contra 4 distintas comisiones. Apostar al que no sea 13 votos. A favor En contra 12 1 voto. En el ejemplo, en caso toman menos riesgos y, por gane 88 a 84, es. PARAGRAPHA favor En contra 38 12 votos. Sin embargo, ten cuidado de el favorito se conoce como. En ocasiones, cada equipo tiene 5 votos.

Revista Colombiana de Estadística - Applied Statistics. January Grupo de Investigación Davinci, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Aplicadas, Instituto of probability distributions have been proposed, such as the betting- and lottery-. Ballesteros, M.L. [Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales, Catedra Diaz, M.P. [Facultad de Ciencias Medicas, Catedra de Estadistica y Bioestadistica, oxytocin augmentation (% and %, respectively; odds ratio (OR) macroscópicos. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. usamos herramientas de la mecánica estadıstica para describir y modelar la acti- shifting, non-brain removal using BET and spatial smoothing using a Gaussian.