For mining of Litecoin , as well as its various forks on the scrypt algorithm, this article will discuss the important technical characteristics, as well as hardware compatibility, software and the most popular software — the miner, in particular the most stable and flexibly configurable CGMINER. Also, the processor performs a great number of other operations. The graphics adapter GPU is able to carry out many similar tasks very fast and effectively, but at the same time it switches to another task slowly.
NVIDIA graphics adapters, due to their design features , are currently less capable and make farm building several times more expensive than with AMD solutions. The main components of the farm are nearly the same as those of a regular computer, with several exceptions:. There are currently a great number of graphics cards on the market that are suitable for mining. The largest list of these graphics cards is available on [litecoin.
Some graphics cards are already deprecated and they are impossible to find in the necessary number and condition. We will discuss graphics cards which are available on the market, as it will give an opportunity to make a mining farm of a necessary capacity. The selection of optimal parameters of memory clock speed and core clock speed must be done individually for each graphics card.
These parameters affect both the mining rate and the whole system stability. Also, overclocking affects temperature and energy consumption of the graphics cards. The more the GPU is overclocked, the more the farms' demand increases on the cooling system. If the system has different card series, or cards of one series but by different manufacturers, conflicts are possible during launch and overclocking, which will affect the maximum speed and the whole farm and its stability.
Hardware combinations for a farm also affect the hash rate. A correct choice of farm components, like motherboard and RAM, also increases the stability and the mining speed of a farm. For example, as said before: the lack of standard solutions in scrypt mining leads to the fact that the same values and settings of the video adapters are often ineffective when applying to another farm configuration.
When building farms, one should do some calculations to know the most profitable variant. You need to know energy consumption of the whole farm and calculate 24 hours charges for energy. Considering these calculations, you can draw a conclusion on the payback period. There are companies that provide their equipment capacity for a certain amount of money per month.
This way is relevant for crypto currencies, which have only CPU mining. It is profitable in two cases: when the company provides a free trial period, or when the crypto currency complexity is low and the exchange rate is high. Operating systems and mining software. OS installed on the mining farm may affect the crypto coins mining speed. Monitoring tools are brought to the main screen. A detailed description of installation and setup is available here club.
The right driver version choice is very important. Sometimes particular driver versions lower the total computational capacity of the scrypt mining equipment. At the same time the others, on the contrary, allow to achieve high hash rate. There are several main mining programs - bfgminer, ufasoft miner , diablo miner, phoenix, guiminer, cgminer. The most flexible in configuring, stable and informative miner is CGminer.
So we will discuss it. CGminer is managed via the command line. To ensure that you do not need to reconfigure all the settings every launch or when you change the crypto currency, it is easier to create a. Intensity is the key figure affecting the miner's work speed, its value is set from 0 to One must consider that a too high intensity can negatively affect the mining speed, because it MAY exhaust all available memory and actually reduce the mining speed in the best case.
In the worst case — there will appear a lot of miscalculations and HW errors. Take into account that if the intensity is not set, CGMiner will adjust it itself, dynamically, to provide an opportunity of convenient work with the PC. Thread-concurrency controls an optimal volume of calculations which a scrypt algorithm can do. It is set up by default to use a few threads on all shader blocks the graphics card has at a maximum.
The value must be a multiple of the number of shader blocks of the graphics card. It is recommended to spend some time to find the best value for your graphics card in order to get the best performance. A drawback of the reference R9 x and R9 was card cooling without any additional cooling while mining. Thus, the increasing costs and payback periods appeared.
But today there are quite a lot of non-reference solutions from almost all manufacturers, which made R9 x and R9 very interesting for building powerful, compact and cold enough farms. To date, the majority of miners consider the golden mean constructing farms on these video adapters. This series will allow a powerful, middle-sized farm. Also suit for constructing farms on their base.
But this will be the biggest farms in size and the number of connected wires. On their bas, an additional number of risers will be required, which are additional expenses. Below, there are some statistic data about the performance of various mining equipment. The columns are sorted for the comparison convenience. The energy consumption is low. But it is unprofitable to build a farm of them as a big number of them will be needed, which makes the construction of the farm money-losing despite their low cost.
The energy consumption is a little bit higher than at Small farms can be constructed of such graphics cards, for example, for an acquaintance with the mining sphere or small additional income as they have a low price. In capacity, they can compete with series.
The average price is 11, — 13, RUR. To ensure that you do not need to reconfigure all the settings every launch or when you change the crypto fx a tdkc litecoin value, it is easier to create a. The basic setup for the miner to work looks like this: Intensity is the key figure affecting fx a tdkc litecoin value miner's work speed, its value is set from 0 to One must consider that a too high intensity can negatively affect the mining speed, because it MAY exhaust all available memory and actually reduce the mining speed in the best case.
In the worst case — there will appear a lot of miscalculations and HW errors. Take into account that if the intensity is not set, CGMiner will adjust fx a tdkc litecoin value itself, dynamically, to provide an opportunity fx a tdkc litecoin value convenient work with the PC. Thread-concurrency fx a tdkc litecoin value an optimal volume of calculations which a scrypt algorithm can do.
It is set up by default fx a tdkc litecoin value use a few threads on all shader blocks the graphics card has at a maximum. The value must be a multiple of the number of shader blocks of the graphics card. It is recommended to spend some time to find the best value for your graphics card fx a tdkc litecoin value order to get the best performance. A drawback of the reference R9 x and R9 was card cooling without any additional cooling while mining.
Thus, the increasing costs and payback periods appeared. But today there are quite a lot of non-reference solutions from almost all manufacturers, which made R9 x and R9 very interesting for building powerful, compact and cold enough farms. I'm getting 3 of the gigabyte OC cards soon. Sidorovich on May 10,I'm gonna tweak it tomorrow, i'll post the results. Older series cards like only 1 GPU thread.
This presents a problem in a mixed environment. For example, I have two 's and one Spetznaaz on May 10,As you can see i've been playing about with MSI Afterburner settings, still haven't got the sweet spot quite right, it's amazing how sensitive these cards fx a tdkc litecoin value to such small changes.
Raspberry pi packages for cgminer Ubuntu PPA for mining related software. Spetznaaz on May 12,Did you change it in the. I've got a lot of different cards and the XFX ones are the worst i've ever used. My Gigabyte ones will fly over a piece of cake, my Diamond ones will do over without much effort, but the XFX ones i'd be lucky to hit no matter how much tweaking or OC'ing.
MysteryX on May 12,What's the worst that could happen if the bios flash doesn't work right? Will my card be dead? And I am going to have a as my main card, with three s for mining. Is there any way I can accidentally flash my nvidia card with the AMD drivers? Sidorovich on May 12,Have you seen this flash done on the xfx cards which didn't use the reference pcb. I get artifacts when I put in your settings and my card crashes after 20 seconds. I get this everytime I'm going to high with my card.
Anyone know how I can fix this? Hey, so Fx a tdkc litecoin value made some changes with my setup. Here is the guide that I used and a link to the bios that I used to flash the card: ElBurro on April 29,Here is the solution for the Ghz card. Mine is a Sapphire Vapor. Flashing is a breeze, I'll tell you the steps I took to get it working. It looks like I won't need to do a bios flash. I have been having problems getting more than one card to work at a time though. Has anyone here gotten higher thanor is this the limit for a?
Sidorovich on May 17,May 18,Going to run them overnight and see what happens. June 06,A couple of "gotchas" that I stumbled into along the way: However, although it worked I was dropped into A: This really confused me and I tried B: After much fiddling about I tried C: Again after much fiddling about and head scratching I had to leave the office I'd brought the rig in so some fx a tdkc litecoin value the guys at work could give me a hand.
I noticed that one card was a lot hotter than the other. Then I realised I'd only plugged one screen in and had not been using the dummy plug. This one was a gotcha since it looked from cgminer's screen like both cards were working, but in reality I think the hashing was being erroneously allocated evenly ish to both when in reality one card was idle due to not detecting a screen. Anyway, I hope my n00bish mistakes help someone else. Changing -g to 3 not quite sure what -g does even after reading the docs but whatever!
When I try and tweak most things other than clock speeds I tend to get "invalid nonce" errors.
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Additional Information Customer Reviews 3. Any returned computer that is damaged through customer misuse, is missing parts, or is in unsellable condition due to customer tampering will result in the customer being charged a higher restocking fee based on the condition of the product. New, used, and refurbished products purchased from Marketplace vendors are subject to the returns policy of the individual vendor. Product Warranty: For warranty information about this product, please click here.
Would you like to tell us about a lower price? Legal Disclaimer New, Open box. Free priority shipping included. Great for Bitcoin mining. See questions and answers. Customer reviews. How are ratings calculated? Instead, our system considers things like how recent a review is and if the reviewer bought the item on Amazon.
It also analyzes reviews to verify trustworthiness. Top reviews Most recent Top reviews. Top reviews from the United States. There was a problem filtering reviews right now. Please try again later. Verified Purchase. When I first got it, it played everything I could throw at it maxed out. No problems whatsoever. After a few days, that all changed. At first, I noticed some random artifacting, in games, but would go away when I restarted the games, no big deal right.
Well, the artifacting started popping up in weird places, even over the facebook chat windows, go figure. This was tolerable, as restarting applications usually fixed it, even though it was annoying. Then the card started slowing down, just started today It wasnt overheating or anything, it just seemed to be throttling itself. I tested it using Furmark, and was getting 8FPS on their standard p benchmark, and I also noticed it was reporting the correct core and memory speeds. Now the card doesnt do this all the time, and usually a system restart will fix it, but for a card that costs this much money, I fell like I have to return it.
Other thoughts: tested using the lastest AMD drivers PSU is fine, 1. Tested this card in another pc, with a different psu, and got the same results. I rated it 2 stars because I still have faith in XFX and their products and believe I just got a lemon card. I will most likely buy another one in a few days and will edit my review accordingly. I'm writing this review after ordering this card a long time ago. The card itself is a powerhouse, but the difference between the and the is not that huge.
My reasoning behind ordering it is to run 3x x monitors in eyefinity. Sadly, with such a high resolution to get any decent frame rate, you need the best cards if you plan on running current games. Let's get straight to the point though- Pros: -Solid performer -Lots of RAM -Nice thermal design, not spectacular, but the fans are nice enough that it isn't a high pitched whine.
I'm not sure if I received a faulty card twice.. My replacement card also has artifacts, but not nearly to the extent of my first card, just minor ones, not unlike a bit too high of an OC. Like I said above, coming from a , this would have been unnecessary had I been running a single x monitor.
I'm not sure how well the would fare on a x monitor or something like that, but for normal gamers, this upgrade is a bit too much. Other thoughts: -Here is my real problem with this card. XFX has a lifetime warranty! My experience with XFX was less than desirable, granted it may have been at a bad time, but it was still ridiculous. Upon sending in a support ticket, they told me to bypass their RMA system and go with Amazon's return.
Seeing as Amazon didn't have a replacement option and only a refund, I didn't want that. I wanted my card, and I wanted my lifetime warranty. I could have gone through another seller, but I would have missed out on the rebate available I did anyway due to the lengthy RMA process and not wanting to send in my UPC and have zero proof of ownership.
I shipped it to them, and it was received within a few days. I did not receive any confirmation of receipt except for my tracking number. After a week, I checked back on my status, and they did update it as received from what I can remember. After that, the next time I visited the page, everything was gone.
My RMA tickets, their entire website, etc. They were planning a server swap, and guess when they did it? Right then! I contacted support, and I was told about the server transfer, as well as them being as unhappy as I am about the whole situation. They also mentioned expediting the process. Awesome, it won't affect anything, or so I thought. According to what I read online, everyone was having that issue. As much as I love the lifetime warranty, this whole incident seriously cast a doubt on XFX for me.
I have never had an issue with them in the past, but their service was rude, and my tickets were ignored after asking where my product was one month in, and my RMA ticket was lost, so I had no way of checking the status on their new site. And I know this is my own fault, but this whole issue is the reason I missed out on the rebate.
Don't think so. The card is great, the service was very poor. Seriously if I was going to wait 2 months I would have just waited for the next gen to come out, since the Nvidia series came out that same week I received my card back. The only plus side to everything was that I got 2 games with it that I didn't want to play for 2 months until I received my card.
Completely lost interest in those two months. The EVGA card wasn't as stable too. Crossfire motherboards are cheaper and more flexible to run than Nvidia's SLI. In term of gaming performance you'll find that HD excel at games above x You'll see this card shines at the x resolution against Nvidia cards.
Then in professional graphics applications AMD butchers Nvidia so bad that it's not even a competition. This card is physically voltage locked so there's no way you can lower the voltage but it does come overclocked at mhz so no complaints. The losing block then becomes an " orphan block.
Miners who successfully solve the hash problem but who haven't verified the most transactions are not rewarded with bitcoin. Well, here is an example of such a number:. The number above has 64 digits. Easy enough to understand so far. As you probably noticed, that number consists not just of numbers, but also letters of the alphabet. Why is that? To understand what these letters are doing in the middle of numbers, let's unpack the word "hexadecimal.
As you know, we use the "decimal" system, which means it is base This, in turn, means that every digit of a multi-digit number has 10 possibilities, zero through nine. In a hexadecimal system, each digit has 16 possibilities. But our numeric system only offers 10 ways of representing numbers zero through nine. That's why you have to stick letters in, specifically letters a, b, c, d, e, and f. If you are mining bitcoin, you do not need to calculate the total value of that digit number the hash.
I repeat: You do not need to calculate the total value of a hash. Remember that ELI5 analogy, where I wrote the number 19 on a piece of paper and put it in a sealed envelope? In bitcoin mining terms, that metaphorical undisclosed number in the envelope is called the target hash. What miners are doing with those huge computers and dozens of cooling fans is guessing at the target hash. A nonce is short for "number only used once," and the nonce is the key to generating these bit hexadecimal numbers I keep talking about.
In Bitcoin mining, a nonce is 32 bits in size—much smaller than the hash, which is bits. In theory, you could achieve the same goal by rolling a sided die 64 times to arrive at random numbers, but why on earth would you want to do that? The screenshot below, taken from the site Blockchain.
You are looking at a summary of everything that happened when block was mined. The nonce that generated the "winning" hash was The target hash is shown on top. The term "Relayed by Antpool" refers to the fact that this particular block was completed by AntPool, one of the more successful mining pools more about mining pools below.
As you see here, their contribution to the Bitcoin community is that they confirmed transactions for this block. If you really want to see all of those transactions for this block, go to this page and scroll down to the heading "Transactions. All target hashes begin with zeros—at least eight zeros and up to 63 zeros.
There is no minimum target, but there is a maximum target set by the Bitcoin Protocol. No target can be greater than this number:. Here are some examples of randomized hashes and the criteria for whether they will lead to success for the miner:. You'd have to get a fast mining rig, or, more realistically, join a mining pool—a group of coin miners who combine their computing power and split the mined bitcoin.
Mining pools are comparable to those Powerball clubs whose members buy lottery tickets en masse and agree to share any winnings. A disproportionately large number of blocks are mined by pools rather than by individual miners. In other words, it's literally just a numbers game. You cannot guess the pattern or make a prediction based on previous target hashes.
Not great odds if you're working on your own, even with a tremendously powerful mining rig. Not only do miners have to factor in the costs associated with expensive equipment necessary to stand a chance of solving a hash problem. They must also consider the significant amount of electrical power mining rigs utilize in generating vast quantities of nonces in search of the solution.
All told, bitcoin mining is largely unprofitable for most individual miners as of this writing. Source: Cryptocompare. Mining rewards are paid to the miner who discovers a solution to the puzzle first, and the probability that a participant will be the one to discover the solution is equal to the portion of the total mining power on the network. Participants with a small percentage of the mining power stand a very small chance of discovering the next block on their own.
For instance, a mining card that one could purchase for a couple of thousand dollars would represent less than 0. With such a small chance at finding the next block, it could be a long time before that miner finds a block, and the difficulty going up makes things even worse. The miner may never recoup their investment. The answer to this problem is mining pools. By working together in a pool and sharing the payouts among all participants, miners can get a steady flow of bitcoin starting the day they activate their miner.
As mentioned above, the easiest way to acquire bitcoin is to simply buy it on one of the many exchanges. Alternately, you can always leverage the "pickaxe strategy. Or, to put it in modern terms, invest in the companies that manufacture those pickaxes. In a cryptocurrency context, the pickaxe equivalent would be a company that manufactures equipment used for Bitcoin mining.
The legality of Bitcoin mining depends entirely on your geographic location. The concept of Bitcoin can threaten the dominance of fiat currencies and government control over the financial markets. For this reason, Bitcoin is completely illegal in certain places. Bitcoin ownership and mining are legal in more countries than not. The risks of mining are that of financial risk and a regulatory one. As mentioned, Bitcoin mining, and mining in general, is a financial risk.
One could go through all the effort of purchasing hundreds or thousands of dollars worth of mining equipment only to have no return on their investment. That said, this risk can be mitigated by joining mining pools. If you are considering mining and live in an area that it is prohibited you should reconsider.
It may also be a good idea to research your countries regulation and overall sentiment towards cryptocurrency before investing in mining equipment. Your Money. Personal Finance. Your Practice. Popular Courses. Part Of. Bitcoin Basics. Bitcoin Mining. How to Store Bitcoin. Bitcoin Exchanges. Bitcoin Advantages and Disadvantages. Bitcoin vs. Other Cryptocurrencies. Bitcoin Value and Price. Cryptocurrency Bitcoin. Table of Contents Expand.
What is Bitcoin Mining? How To Mine Bitcoins. Mining and Bitcoin Circulation. How Much a Miner Earns. The Simple Explanation. The Digit Hexadecimal Number. Is Bitcoin Mining Legal? Risks of Mining. Key Takeaways By mining, you can earn cryptocurrency without having to put down money for it. Bitcoin miners receive Bitcoin as a reward for completing "blocks" of verified transactions which are added to the blockchain.
Mining rewards are paid to the miner who discovers a solution to a complex hashing puzzle first, and the probability that a participant will be the one to discover the solution is related to the portion of the total mining power on the network.