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Thermodynamic systematics of oxides of americium, curium , and neighboring elements. Recently-obtained calorimetric data on the sesquioxides and dioxides of americium and curium are summarized. These data are combined with other properties of the actinide elements to elucidate the stability relationships among these oxides and to predict the behavior of neighboring actinide oxides.

The curium tagging approach for enhanced safeguards for spent fuel handling and reprocessing. Because of the intense neutron emission rate from curium , it can be a useful signature to measure and track special nuclear material in spent fuel and waste. By measuring the concentration of curium as well as plutonium and uranium in spent fuel streams, the ratio of curium to plutonium, uranium or other actinides can be used for waste assay.

The quantity of special nuclear material in the waste streams such as the leached hulls and vitrified high-level waste can be calculated from the ratio of the curium to the plutonium, etc. The quantity of curium can be measured from the neutron emission rate from the various waste streams in the presence of the high-level gamma-ray backgrounds from fission products.

Examples of using the curium ratio technique for measuring plutonium in leached hulls and vitrified waste canisters are presented in this paper. Extraction separation of americium and curium. A review. A survey is given of extraction systems suitable for transplutonium element separation and preparation as well as for the practical application of their nuclear properties. Methods are discussed in detail of separating the actinide and the lanthanide fractions from fission and corrosion products and of separating americium from curium.

The description is completed with flowsheets showing the separation of transplutonium elements from irradiated targets and waste solutions after spent fuel reprocessing. Gut uptake factors for plutonium, americium and curium. Data on estimates of the absorption of plutonium, americium and curium from the human gut based on measurements of uptake in other mammalian species are reviewed.

It is proposed that for all adult members of the public ingesting low concentrations of plutonium in food and water, 0. For dietary intakes of americium and curium , the available data do not warrant a change from the ICRP value of 0. It is proposed that a value of 0. In considering the ingestion of insoluble oxides of plutonium by infants, it is proposed that absorption is taken as 0.

Plant uptake of americium, curium , and the chemical analog neodymium. The plant uptake from several bulk soils has been determined for neodymium, a chemical analog to the transuranium elements americium and curium , and several other native rare earth elements as well. These investigations have demonstrated that neodymium, which has very similar chemical properties to amercium and curium and should have a similar environmental behavior, does behave indistinguishably under both laboratory and field conditions.

The uptake of the weathered or mobile forms of these elements from soils is expected to be governed primarily by their identical oxidation states and nearly identical ionic radii. This hypothesis is strongly supported by the chondritic primordial normalized rare earth element patterns in several plants. In these samples, the entire series of rare earth elements behaves as a smooth function of the REE ionic radii, as is also seen in the contiguous soils.

This behavior suggests that the plant uptake of other ions with similar chemical properties i. Analytical separation of americium and curium , using high performance liquid chromatography. Finally, the time necessary for a separation is comprised between 30 min and 1 hr.

The purity of separated fractions was assayed by mass-spectrometry. An application in the determination of isotopic composition of americium and curium in fuels is described. Yaita, T. The structural determinations by both the crystal XRD and the solution EXAFS methods showed that the DGA co-ordinated to the trivalent lanthanide ion in a tridentate fashion: co-ordination of three oxygen atoms of each ligand to the metal ion.

Accordingly, the DGA would behave only as a semi-tridentate in the co-ordination to trivalent curium in solution. Critical and subcritical masses were calculated for a sphere of five curium isotopes from Cm to Cm in metal and in metal-water mixtures considering three reflector conditions: bare, with a water reflector or a stainless steel reflector. Marra, J. These highly radioactive and valuable isotopes have been stored in an SRS reprocessing facility for a number of years.

Vitrification of this solution will allow the material to be more safely stored until it is transported to the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation for use in research and medical applications. A previous paper described operation results from the Am-Cm Melter 2A pilot system, a full-scale non-radioactive pilot facility. This paper presents the results from continued testing in the Pilot Facility and also describes efforts taken to look at alternative vitrification process operations and flowsheets designed to address the problems observed during melter 2A pilot testing.

Pretreatment development experiments were performed to understand the behavior of the lanthanides and the metal impurities during the oxalate precipitation and properties of the precipitate slurry. The results of these experiments will be used to refine the target glass composition allowing optimization of the primary processing parameters and design of the solution transfer equipment.

Remote micro-encapsulation of curium -gold cermets. A technique is described for fabricating minature, high-density capsules of curium oxide contained in three concentric jackets of metallic gold or silver , with the outer surface being free of alpha contamination. The completed capsules are right circular cylinders 0. A typical capsule would contain approx.

This method of fabrication eliminates voids between the jackets and produces a minimum size, maximum density capsule. Cermet densities of Since the delivery system is sensitive to the physical properties of the feed, a simulated solution was prepared and used to measure the density as a function of temperature between 20 to 70 degrees C. The measured density decreased linearly at a rate of 0. Smith, M.

The full- scale pilot system has a frit and aqueous feed delivery system, a dual zone bushing melter, and an off-gas treatment system. Most of the process and equipment were proven to function properly, but several problems were found which will need further work.

A system description and a discussion of test results will be given. Osipenko, A. The method of potentiometric titration using oxygen sensors with solid electrolyte membrane was applied for the study of the interaction of curium cations with oxygen anions in the molten alkali metal chlorides in the temperature range of C degrees depending on oxy-acidity of the environment.

Assumptions were made concerning ion and phase composition of the obtained high-temperature compounds and chemical reactions taking place in the melts. Basic thermodynamic values were calculated for the resultant curium oxy-compounds.

The rapid determination of americium curium , and uranium in urine by ultrafiltration. The rapid ultrafiltration method developed for the assay of plutonium has been extended to the determination of americium, curium and uranium in urine. The limits of detection for americium and curium , and uranium are 0. The method can therefor be effectively used as a rapid screening procedure.

The single ultrafiltration technique must be modified for turbid urine samples. The method is inappropriate, except for uranium, when the urine contains DTPA. Volume 13, Curium This report also includes discussions about waste types and forms in which Cm can be found and Cm behavior in the environment and in the human body.

Final report on the decontamination of the Curium Source Fabrication Facility. Solid and liquid waste volumes were controlled to minimize discharges to the ORNL waste systems. TRU curium shipping container. An analytical evaluation of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Transuranium TRU Curium Shipping Container was made to demonstrate its compliance with the regulations governing offsite shipment of packages containing radioactive material.

The evaluation encompassed five primary categories: structural integrity, thermal resistance, radiation shielding, nuclear criticality safety, and quality assurance. The results of the evaluation show that the container complies with the applicable regulations. Prior to vitrification, an in-tank pretreatment will be used to remove metal impurities from the solution using an oxalate precipitation process.

Material balance calculations for this process, based on solubility data in pure nitric acid, predict approximately 80 percent of the plutonium in the solution will be lost to waste. Due to the uncertainty associated with the plutonium losses during processing, solubility experiments were performed to measure the recovery of plutonium during pretreatment and a subsequent precipitation process to prepare a slurry feed for a batch melter.

In two subsequent washes with a 0. During the precipitation and washing steps, lanthanide fission products in the solution were mostly insoluble. Uranium, and alkali, alkaline earth, and transition metal impurities were soluble as expected. An elemental material balance for plutonium showed that greater than 94 percent of the plutonium was recovered in the dissolved precipitate. The recovery of the lanthanide elements was generally 94 percent or higher except for the more soluble lanthanum.

The recovery of soluble metal impurities from the precipitate slurry ranged from 15 to 22 percent. Theoretically, 16 percent of the soluble oxalates should have been present in the dissolved slurry based on the dilution effects and volumes of supernate and wash solutions removed. A trace level material balance showed greater than 97 percent recovery of americium from the beta dec. Quantitative determination of americium and curium in solutions using potassium tungstophosphate. Two methods of americium 4 and curium 4 titration-replacement and redox ones - have been considered.

According to the replacement method thorium nitrate solution was used as a titrant and the final point of titration was determined spectophotometrically. Using the method developed, on the basis of experimental data, the composition of thorium 4 complex with potassium tungstophosphate was determined.

In case of the redox titration sodium nitrite was used, and the final titration point was indicated either spectrophotometrically or potentiometrically. In vitro dissolution of curium oxide using a phagolysosomal simulant solvent system.

Detailed study of actinide oxide behavior in alveolar macrophages AM in vitro is limited because of the short life span of these cells in culture. We created an in vitro dissolution system that could mimic the acidic phagolysosomal environment for the actinide and be maintained for an indefinite period so that dissolution of more insoluble materials could be measured.

The dissolution system for this investigation, consisting of nine different solutions of HCl and the chelating agent diethylenetriamine pentaacetate DTPA in distilled water, is called the phagolysosomal simulant solvent PSS. We could observe the effect of altering pH within a range of 4.

We chose curium sesquioxide Cm 2 O 3 to validate the PSS for actinide dissolution versus that occurring in AM in vitro because it dissolves significantly in less than 1 week. The polydisperse Cm 2 O 3 aerosol was generated, collected on filters, resuspended, and added to the PSS solutions and to cultured canine AM. By comparing dissolution in the two systems directly, we hoped to arrive at an optimum PSS for future dissolution studies.

PSS and cell culture samples were taken daily for 7 days after exposure and tested for the solubilized curium. The amount of soluble material was determined by ultracentrifugation to separate the insoluble CM 2 O 3 from the soluble curium in the PSS solutions and filtration for the cell-containing material. After separating the soluble and insoluble fractions, the samples were analyzed using alpha liquid scintillation counting. Spectroscopic and redox properties of curium and californium ions in concentrated aqueous carbonate-bicarbonate media.

Multimilligram quantities of trivalent curium and californium were investigated by absorption spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and bulk solution electrolysis in concentrated aqueous carbonate-bicarbonate solution. Actinide concentrations between 10 -4 and 10 -2 M were studied in 2 M sodium carbonate and 5.

The solution absorption spectra of Cm III and Cf III in carbonate media are presented for the first time and compared to literature spectra of these species in noncomplexing aqueous solution. No conclusive evidence was found in the present work to indicate the existence of any higher oxidation states of curium or californium in carbonate solution. Some possible reasons for our inability to generate and detect oxidized species of curium and californium in this medium are discussed.

Development of analytical methods for the separation of plutonium, americium, curium and neptunium from environmental samples. In this work, separation methods have been developed for the analysis of anthropogenic transuranium elements plutonium, americium, curium and neptunium from environmental samples contaminated by global nuclear weapons testing and the Chernobyl accident.

The analytical methods utilized in this study are based on extraction chromatography. Highly varying atmospheric plutonium isotope concentrations and activity ratios were found at both Kurchatov Kazakhstan , near the former Semipalatinsk test site, and Sodankylae Finland.

The origin of plutonium is almost impossible to identify at Kurchatov, since hundreds of nuclear tests were performed at the Semipalatinsk test site. The variation in americium, curium and neptunium concentrations was great as well in peat samples collected in southern and central Finland in immediately after the Chernobyl accident. The main source of transuranium contamination in peats was from global nuclear test fallout, although there are wide regional differences in the fraction of Chernobyl-originated activity of the total activity for americium, curium and neptunium.

The separation methods developed in this study yielded good chemical recovery for the elements investigated and adequately pure fractions for radiometric activity determination. The extraction chromatographic methods were faster compared to older methods based on ion exchange chromatography.

In addition, extraction chromatography is a more environmentally friendly separation method than ion exchange, because less acidic waste solutions are produced during the analytical procedures. Nutrition education Curium is closely associated with americium in irradiated fuels because of their chemical similarity with regard to potential separation requirements, and because americium also requires special shielding and handling requirements due to its gamma radiation emission.

For these reasons, curium management is challenging. Countries that are now engaged in or planning future fuel recycle operations, are considering methods to manage the curium produced and minimise the shielding and handling requirements, as well as the reprocessing requirements for separation of curium from americium France, Japan, and the USA have begun curium management studies.

Curium management methods under consideration include 1 separation of curium from americium and storage of curium for several decades to allow Cm to decay substantially to Pu, while moving ahead to recycle americium; 2 recycling of americium and curium without separation; and 3 waiting several decades to reprocess used nuclear fuels, allowing decay minimisation of curium emissions and the requirement for separation of curium from americium, and allowing an alteration of the subsequent transmutation path to reduce the production of curium in recycled used fuels.

The French studies included scenarios that compared the recycle of ail minor actinides neptunium, americium, and curium with the recycle of only neptunium and americium in radial blankets of sodium-cooled fast reactors SFR. In the latter scenario, curium is separated from americium during used fuel reprocessing and stored for years to allow Cm to decay to Pu which is then recycled.

Even though. This Type B Investigative Report provides an evaluation of relevant events and activities that led to, were a part of, or resulted from the release of curium in the Building facility at ORNL in January Impacts have been evaluated with respect to employee exposures and the costs and loss of productivity resulting from increased bioassay analyses and activities of investigative committees.

Management systems evaluated include 1 training of employees performing lab analyses, 2 adherence to procedures, and 3 response to unusual circumstances. Cleanex process: a versatile solvent extraction process for recovery and purification of lanthanides, americium, and curium. At a concentration of 1 M in straight-chain hydrocarbon diluent, HDEHP will extract americium, curium , and other trivalent actinide and lanthanide elements from dilute acid or salt solutions.

The solute is back-extracted with more concentrated acid, either nitric or hydrochloric. The process has been used in the continuous, countercurrent mode, but its greatest advantage arises in batch extractions where the excess acid can be titrated with NaOH to produce a final acidity of about 0. Cleanex was used on the liter scale at the Transuranium Processing Plant at Oak Ridge for 12 years to provide a broad spectrum cleanup to transuranium elements before applying more sophisticated techniques for separating individual products.

Work was performed to identify a process to vitrify the contents of F- canyon Tank Tank The Am and Cm and associated lanthanide fission products are currently in nitric acid solution. Research was performed to determine if the Tank Additional studies identified critical process parameters such as heat loading, melter requirements, off-gas evolution, etc.

Discussions with NMPT personnel were initiated to determine existing facilities where this work could be accomplished safely. The food packages are as follows: 1 Food Package I—Infants birth ID VHK The use of curium neutrons to verify plutonium in spent fuel and reprocessing wastes. For safeguards verification of spent fuel, leached hulls, and reprocessing wastes, it is necessary to determine the plutonium content in these items.

Neutron multiplicity counting of the singles, doubles, and triples neutrons has been evaluated for measuring Pu, Cm, and Cf. We have proposed a method to establish the plutonium to curium ratio using the hybrid k-edge densitometer x-ray fluorescence instrument plus a neutron coincidence counter for the reprocessing dissolver solution. This report presents the concepts, experimental results, and error estimates for typical spent fuel applications.

Transmutation of americium and curium incorporated in zirconia-based host materials. Presented are studies involving the incorporation of americium and curium in zirconia-based materials. It was determined that selected Y-CSZ materials can incorporate significant quantities of americium oxide and remain cubic single-phase. The cell parameters of these fluorite-type products were established to be linear with the AmO 2 content.

The Cm 2 O 3 -ZrO 2 system was also investigated. At higher and lower concentrations, diphasic materials were encountered. Application of curium measurements for safeguarding at reprocessing plants. Study 1: High-level liquid waste and Study 2: Spent fuel assemblies and leached hulls.

In large-scale reprocessing plants for spent fuel assemblies, the quantity of plutonium in the waste streams each year is large enough to be important for nuclear safeguards. The wastes are drums of leached hulls and cylinders of vitrified high-level liquid waste.

The plutonium amounts in these wastes cannot be measured directly by a nondestructive assay NDA technique because the gamma rays emitted by plutonium are obscured by gamma rays from fission products, and the neutrons from spontaneous fissions are obscured by those from curium. The most practical NDA signal from the waste is the neutron emission from curium. A diversion of waste for its plutonium would also take a detectable amount of curium , so if the amount of curium in a waste stream is reduced, it can be inferred that there is also a reduced amount of plutonium.

This report studies the feasibility of tracking the curium through a reprocessing plant with neutron measurements at key locations: spent fuel assemblies prior to shearing, the accountability tank after dissolution, drums of leached hulls after dissolution, and canisters of vitrified high-level waste after separation.

Existing pertinent measurement techniques are reviewed, improvements are suggested, and new measurements are proposed. The authors integrate these curium measurements into a safeguards system. Cm III interaction with calcite was investigated in the trace concentration range. The first Cm III sorption species consists of a curium ion that is bonded onto the calcite surface. An assessment of the gas-phase energetics of neutral and singly and doubly charged cationic actinide monoxides and dioxides of thorium, protactinium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, and curium is presented.

A consistent set of metal-oxygen bond dissociation enthalpies, ionization energies, and enthalpies of formation, including new or revised values, is proposed, mainly based on recent experimental data and on correlations with the electronic energetics of the atoms or cations and with condensed-phase thermochemistry. Moll, H. The new SRB strain Desulfovibrio aespoeensis could be isolated. Results describing the basic interaction mechanisms of uranium, curium , and plutonium with cells of D.

The interaction experiments with the actinides showed that the cells are able to remove all three actinides from the surrounding solution. The amount of removed actinide and the interaction mechanism varied among the different actinides. The main U VI removal occurred after the first 24 h. The presence of uranium caused a damaging of the cell membranes. TEM revealed an accumulation of U inside the bacterial cell. A complex interaction mechanism takes place consisting of biosorption, bioreduction and bioaccumulation.

Most of the formed Pu V dissolves from the cell envelope back to the aqueous solution due to the weak complexing properties of this plutonium oxidation state. To summarize, the strength of the interaction of D. Preparation of curium -americium oxide microspheres by resin-bead loading. Resin-bead loading and calcination techniques have been used to produce all curium and americium oxide feed material about 2.

The process based on Dowex 50W resin has progressed from a series of test runs, through special production runs, into routine production in permanent equipment beginning in Key attributes of this process are its reliability, high yields, and ease of operation.

The process is suited for remote operation in hot cells. There have been no problems in fabricating targets from this oxide or in the subsequent irradiation of these targets. Since the annual production is accomplished in two 8 to 12 day periods, there has been no reason to consider further scale-up.

However, the rate of production could easily be doubled by simply adding a second set of calcination equipment. Raison, P. It is DoD policy that: a The U. This part: a Establishes policy Information copies of the audit Transport of plutonium, americium, and curium from soils into plants by roots. For assessing the dose from radionuclides in agricultural products by ingestion it is necessary to know the soil to plant transfer factors.

The literature was entirely investigated, in order to judge the size of the soil to plant transfer factors. In total, 92 publications - from to -have been evaluated. As result, transfer factors from 10 -9 to 10 -3 have been found for Plutonium, and from 10 -6 to 1 for Americium. For Curium only few data are available in literature.

The considerable variation of the measured transfer factors is based on the dependence of these transfer factors from the ion exchange capacity of soils, from the amount of organic materials, from the pH-value, and from the mode of contamination. There are, in any case, contradictory data, although there has been detected a dependence of the transfer factors from these parameters.

Chelating agenst increase the transfer factors to approximately As well, fertilizers have an influence on the size of the transfer factors - however, the relationships have been scarcely investigated. The distribution of actinides within the individual parts of plants has been investigated.

The highest concentrations are in the roots; in the plant parts above ground the concentration of actinides decreases considerably. The most inferior transfer factors were measured for the respective seed or fruits. The soil to plant transfer factors of actinides are more dependend on the age of the plants within one growing period.

At the beginning of the period, the transfer factor is considerably higher than at the end of this period. With respect to plants with a growing period of several years, correlations are unknown. Exudates from C. The halophilic microorganisms Halomonas sp. This finding suggests that the coordination environment of Eu III on the halophilic microorganisms is more complicated than that on the other three non-halophilic ones.

Ozaki, T. Total and spontaneous fission half-lives of the americium and curium nuclides. The total half-life and the half-life for spontaneous fission are evaluated for the various long-lived nuclides of interest. Behavior of americium, curium , and certain fission products in fluoride melts in the presence of s olid extraction agents. The authors consider the behavior of americium, curium , and certain fission products europium, cerium, yttrium, and strontium in fluoride and chlode-fluoride melts in the presence of nonisomorphous solid phases: calcium fluoride and lanthanum and zirconium oxides.

It is shown that the trace components enter the solid calcium fluoride in a regular fashion only in the presence of an adequate amount of oxygen in the melt. The effect of oxygen on the coprecipitation with calcium fluoride occurs because oxygen compounds of the elements must be formed in the melt, and these are then coprecipitated with the calcium fluoride. The effect of temperature on the sorption of technetium, uranium, neptunium and curium on bentonite, tuff and granodiorite.

A study of the sorption of the radioelements technetium; uranium; neptunium; and curium onto geological materials has been carried out as part of the PNC program to increase confidence in the performance assessment for a high-level radioactive waste repository in Japan. Batch sorption experiments have been performed in order to study the sorption of the radioelements onto bentonite, tuff and granodiorite from equilibrated de-ionized water under strongly-reducing conditions at both room temperature and at 60 C.

Determination of americium and curium using ion-exchange in the nitric-acid-methanol medium for environmental analysis. While transplutonic elements are only slightly sorbed to anion exchangers from hydrochloric or nitric acid media, the presence of alcohol enhances the anionic exchange of these elements, especially in nitric and sulfuric solutions.

In the present work a method has been developed for determining americium and curium in environmental samples, on the basis of the difference between the sorption characteristics to anion exchangers in the acid-methanol system of these transplutonic elements and those of plutonium, polonium and thorium.

The method also permits us to perform sequential determination of plutonium, when necessary. As prescribed in This part announces regulations under which the Secretary of The purpose of the Program is to The State agency shall maintain a financial management system which provides accurate, current and complete Electrochemistry of oxygen-free curium compounds in fused NaCl-2CsCl eutectic. Transient electrochemical techniques such as cyclic, differential pulse and square wave voltammetry, and chronopotentiometry have been used in order to investigate the reduction mechanism of curium ions up to the metal.

The diffusion coefficient of [CmCl 6 ] 3- complex ions was determined by cyclic voltammetry at different temperatures by applying the Berzins-Delahay equation. The validity of the Arrhenius law was also verified and the activation energy for diffusion was found to be The thermodynamic properties of curium trichloride have also been calculated.

Experimental and in situ investigations on americium, curium and plutonium behaviour in marine benthic species: transfer from water or sediments. The tranfer of transuranic elements -americium, curium and plutonium- from the sediments containing them to some marine benthic species endofauna and epifauna was studied with a twofold approach - laboratory and in-situ investigation.

The experimental investigations, divided into three parts, made it possible to specify concentration factors F. The result were refined by an in-situ study that brought new data on the marine distribution of the transuranic elements released by the La Hague plant. Finally, the localization of americium and plutonium in the tissues and cells of these species was determined by autoradiography [fr. Frozen processed foods.

The selection criteria cited in Venhart, M. Radiation-chemical behaviour of neptunium ions in nitric acid solutions in the presence of curium Radiation-chemical behaviour of neptunium ions in nitric acid solutions is studied under the action of intensive internal alpha-irradiation conditioned by curium nuclides.

Effective constants of neptunium 4 oxidation rates and neptuniumi 6 reduction rates are not dependent on neptunium ion in1tial concentration and increase with a growth of a dose rate of alpha-irradiation of solution.

In more concentrated solutions equilibrium between sexa-, penta- and tetravalent neptunium forms is established. Equilibrium concentrations of neptunium valent forms are not dependent on neptunium initial oxidation state under the same initial conditions dose rate, neptunium concentration and acidity.

It is shown form experimental data that under the action of alpha-irradiation neptunium 5 both is oxidated to neptunium 6 and is reduced to neptunium 4. Use of radioanalytical methods for determination of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium isotopes in radioactive wastes.

Activated charcoal is a common type of radioactive waste that contains high concentrations of fission and activation products. The management of this waste includes its characterization aiming the determination and quantification of the specific radionuclides including those known as Difficult-to-Measure Radionuclides RDM. The analysis of the RDM's generally involves complex radiochemical analysis for purification and separation of the radionuclides, which are expensive and time-consuming.

The objective of this work was to define a methodology for sequential analysis of the isotopes of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium present in a type of radioactive waste, evaluating chemical yield, analysis of time spent, amount of secondary waste generated and cost. The waste chosen was the activated charcoal from the purification system of primary circuit water cooling the reactor IEA-R1.

The charcoal samples were dissolved by acid digestion followed by purification and separation of isotopes with ion exchange resins, extraction and chromatographic extraction polymers. Isotopes were analyzed on an alpha spectrometer, equipped with surface barrier detectors. ECP method was comparable with those methods only for uranium. Statistical analysis as well the analysis of time spent, amount of secondary waste generated and cost revealed that EC method is the most effective for identifying and quantifying U, Np, Pu, Am and Cm present in charcoal.

Co was historically produced in the SRS reactors. Cobalt slugs were irradiated in the early s. Post-production, remaining cobalt slugs including slab form were consolidated for storage. There are approximately nine hundred cobalt slugs currently stored awaiting final disposition. These slugs had historically incomplete documentation for activity rates; therefore, assaying was required in order to determine their activity levels.

Since the gamma dose rate from these slugs is extremely high, the most cost effective way to shield a source of this magnitude from personnel and the radiation detector was to use the basin water in which the slugs are stored as the shield. A sodium iodide gamma detector was placed above a specially designed air collimator assembly, so that slug was at least eight feet from the detector and was shielded by the basin water.

Using a sodium iodide detector and multichannel analyzer system and an underwater collimator assembly, Co concentrations we re determined for Disassembly Basin cobalt slugs and slabs and 18 curium sampler slugs. The total activity of all of the assayed slugs summed to 31, curies. From the Co concentrations of the curium sampler slugs, the irradiation flux was determined for the known irradiation time. The amounts of Pu, , , , ; Am, ; and Cm, produced were then obtained based on the original amount of Pu irradiated.

Conditions of use. The drug is used for the treatment of dogs as follows: 1 Amount. For oral use in dogs Transportation to market may be Provisions and Clauses As prescribed in Noncomplex Nature. Clauses Complex Nature.

As used in this Warranty Provisions for Supplies of a Noncomplex Nature. Additional Contract In vitro efficacy of ST against smallpox and monkeypox. Since the eradication of smallpox and the cessation of routine childhood vaccination for smallpox, the proportion of the world's population susceptible to infection with orthopoxviruses, such as variola virus the causative agent of smallpox and monkeypox virus, has grown substantially.

Unfortunately, a substantial number of people cannot receive live virus vaccines due to contraindications. Furthermore, no antiviral drugs have been fully approved by the FDA for the prevention or treatment of orthopoxvirus infection. Here, we show the inhibitory effect of one new antiviral compound, ST- , on the in vitro growth properties of six variola virus strains and seven monkeypox virus strains.

We performed multiple assays to monitor the cytopathic effect and to evaluate the reduction of viral progeny production and release in the presence of the compound. The formation of sulfate complexes of Curium in aqueous solutions is studied by time resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy TRLFS at 25 C. The complex Cm SO 4 3- 3 is found to be stable only at very high sulfate concentrations above 1 molal and therefore not considered for further evaluation.

Spectroscopic and thermodynamic studies on the complexation of trivalent curium with inorganic ligands at increased temperatures; Spektroskopische und thermodynamische Untersuchungen zur Komplexierung von trivalentem Curium mit anorganischen Liganden bei erhoehten Temperaturen. The subject of the present investigation is the complexation of trivalent actinides at elevated temperatures. The objective of this work is to broaden the comprehension of the geochemical processes relevant for the migration of radionuclides in the near-field of a nuclear waste repository.

Depending on the disposed nuclear waste, the temperature in the direct vicinity of a nuclear waste repository may reach up to C. The result is a distinct change of the geochemistry of the actinides. Many of these processes have already been studied in detail at room temperature. Yet, data at elevated temperature are rare. However, a comprehensive long term safety analysis of a nuclear waste repository requires the precise thermodynamic description of the relevant geochemical processes at room as well as at elevated temperatures.

The present work is focused on the investigation of the complexation of trivalent curium Cm III with different inorganic ligands at elevated temperatures. Due to its outstanding spectroscopic properties, Cm III is chosen as a representative for trivalent actinides. The experiments with nitrate, sulphate and chloride were carried out in a custom-built high temperature cell, enabling spectroscopic studies at temperatures up to C.

The Cm III -fluoride-system was studied in a cuvette quartz glass in the temperature range from 20 to 90 C. The results of the TRLFS studies show a general shift of the chemical equilibrium towards the complexed species with increasing temperature. For instance. Interaction of 2,4,6 -trichlorophenol with high carbon iron filings: Reaction and sorption mechanisms. However, reductive dehalogenation of 2,4,6 -TCP was negligible. No transformation of 2-CP or 4-CP to phenol was observed.

We observed this object in and The analysis of the light curves indicates complex and variable temporal spectra. Using wavelet analysis we have found evidences for changes on time scales of hours in the dataset. The temporal spectra obtained during are quite different from the results of the previous year. The modulations in the light curve are more noticeable and the temporal spectra present a higher number of modulation frequencies. One peculiar characteristic is the presence of a variable harmonic structure related to one of these modulation frequencies.

This complex photometric behaviour may be explained by a more complicated unresolved combination of modulation frequencies, but more likely due to a combination of pulsations of the star plus modulations related to interaction with a close companion, maybe indicating a disc. However, these characteristics cannot be confirmed from single site observations.

The complex and variable behaviour of NGC needs the WET co-operation in order to completely resolve its light curve. Computational investigation on 2,4,6 -trinitrochlorobenzene crystal. Density functional theory calculations at the B3LYP level were performed on crystalline 2,4,6 -trinitrochlorobenzene.

The carbon, oxygen, and chlorine atoms make up the narrow lower energy bands, while the nitrogen, carbon, and oxygen atoms make up the higher energy bands. Besides, the contributions of these atomic orbitals to the frontier bands are somewhat well-proportioned. An anisotropic impact on the bulk makes the electron transfer from chlorine to its neighbor carbon atom and from nitrogen atoms to oxygen atoms. The crystal lattice energy is predicted to be Abstract Copyright [], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

The recycling of the actinides neptunium, americium and curium in a fast power reactor to reduce the long term activity in a final store. The starting point for the considerations and calculations given in this dissertation is the inevitable production of radioactive materials in the use of nuclear energy, which creates a considerable potential danger in a final store for a very long period. As one possibility of alleviating this problem, a concept for recycling the waste actinides neptunium, americium and curium was proposed.

The waste actinides are separated in the reprocessing of burnt-up fuel elements and reach a further irradiation circuit. There they pass through the stages 'manufacture of irradiation elements', 'use in a fast power reactor' and reprocessing of irradiation elements' several times. In order to determine this mass reduction effect, a model calculation was developed, which includes the representation of the neutron physics and thermal properties of the reactor core and the storage and reprocessing of the irradiation elements.

Type B accident investigation board report of the July 2, curium intake by shredder operator at Building Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California. Final report. On July 2, at approximately A. A third operator Worker 3 provided support to the shredder operators in the shredding area hot area from a room that was adjacent to the shredding area cold area. At Approximately A. Sometime between A. Upon discovering the contamination, the shredding operation was stopped and surveys were conducted in the shredder area.

Surveys conducted on the workers found significant levels of contamination on their PPE and the exterior of their respirator cartridges. An exit survey of Worker 1 was conducted at approximately A. Contamination was also found on his face, chest, back of neck, hair, knees, and mustache.

A nose blow indicated significant contamination, which was later determined to be curium Organization and Management Determination of actinide elements and fission products in spent nuclear fuels is of importance for a burnup determination and source term evaluation. Especially, the amounts of uranium and plutonium isotopes are used for the evaluation of a burnup credit in spent nuclear fuels.

Additionally, other actinides such as Np, Am and Cm in spent nuclear fuel samples is also required for the purposes mentioned above. In this study, Np, Am and Cm were determined by an alpha spectrometry for the source term data for high burnup spent nuclear fuels ranging from 37 to Generally, mass spectrometry has been known as the most powerful method for isotope determinations such as high concentrations of uranium and plutonium.

However, in the case of minor actinides such as Np, Am and Cm, alpha spectrometry would be recommended instead. Determination of the transuranic elements in spent nuclear fuel samples is different from that for environmental samples because the amount of each nuclide in the spent fuel samples is higher and the relative ratios between each nuclide are also different from those for environmental samples. So, it is important to select an appropriate tracer and an optimum sample size depending on the nuclides and analytical method.

In this study Np was determined by an isotope dilution alpha gamma spectrometry using Np as a spike, and Am and curium isotopes were determined by alpha spectrometry using Am as a tracer. The content of each nuclide was compared with that by the Origen-2 code. Electric resistivity of americium and curium metals. Creation of defects and isochronous annealing of americium metal after self-irradiation.

The temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity of thin films of bulk Am metal were measured between and 4. The room temperature resistivity was found to be The application of 13 kbar pressure did not change the low temperature power law in the electrical resistivity. The resistivity vs temperature curve can be explained by assuming s-d scattering of conduction electrons.

The localized 5f electrons are considered to be about 5eV below the Fermi level. Americium therefore should be the first lanthanide-like element in the actinide series. The defect production due to self-irradiation damage was studied by measuring the increase of the resistivity at 4.

A saturation resistivity of After isochronal annealing two recovery stages were observed at about 65 and K. The two stages shift with increasing initial defect concentration to lower temperatures. Estimates of the activation energies and the reaction order were made and possible defect reactions suggested.

The magnetic contribution to the electrical resistivity of curium , which shows an antiferromagnetic transition at Comparison with theoretical models were made. Alpha spectrometry analysis was used for activity determinations of Pu, Am and Cm isotopes in evaporator concentrate samples from nuclear power plants. Using a sequential procedure the first step was Pu isolation by an anion exchange column followed by an Am and Cm separation of U and Fe by a co-precipitation with oxalic acid.

The precipitate was used for americium and curium separation of strontium by using a TRU resin extraction chromatography column. Due to their chemical similarities and energy difference it was seen that the simultaneous determination of Am, Cm and 24 3 , Cm isotopes is possible using the Am as tracer, once they have peaks in different region of interest ROI in the alpha spectrum.

In this work it was used tracers, Pu, Am, Cm and U, for determination and quantification of theirs isotopes, respectively. Safe handling of kilogram amounts of fuel-grade plutonium and of gram amounts of plutonium, americium and curium During the past 10 years about glove-boxes have been installed at the Institute for Transuranium Elements at Karlsruhe. A small proportion of the glove-boxes is equipped with additional shielding in the form of lead sheet or lead glass for work with recycled plutonium.

In these glove-boxes gram-amounts of Am have also been handled for preparation of Al-Am targets using tongs and additional shielding inside the glove-boxes themselves. Water- and lead-shielded glove-boxes equipped with telemanipulators have been installed for routine work with gram-amounts of Am, Am and Cm. A prediction of the expected radiation dose for the personnel is difficult and only valid for a preparation procedure with well-defined preparation steps, owing to the fact that gamma dose-rates depend strongly upon proximity and source seize.

Gamma radiation dose measurements during non-routine work for Am target preparation showed that handling of gram amounts leads to a rather high irradiation dose for the personnel, despite lead or steel glove-box shielding and shielding within the glove-boxes. A direct glove-hand to americium contact must be avoided. For all glove-handling of materials with gamma radiation an irradiation control of the forearms of the personnel by, for example, thermoluminescence dosimeters is necessary.

Routine handling of americium and curium should be executed with master-slave equipment behind neutron and gamma shielding. In addition, 2,4,6 - trichlorophenol may form during the treatment of phenol containing industrial wastewater with hypochlorite or during the disinfection of drinking-water sources.

The removal of 2,4,6 -trichlorophenol is significant because of its high toxicity, carcinogenic properties and persistence [1]. In this study, the adsorption of 2,4,6 -tr Evaluation of neutron cross sections for Cm, Cm, and Cm. Primary data input included differential measurements, integral measurements, nuclear model calculations, and reactor production experience. Legacy environmental contaminants such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers PBDEs are widely detected in human tissues.

However, few studies have measured PBDEs in placental tissues, and there are no reported measurements of 2,4,6 -tribromophenol 2,4,6 -TBP in placental tissues. Measurements of these contaminants are important for understanding potential fetal exposures, as these compounds have been shown to alter thyroid hormone regulation in vitro and in vivo.

The results of this work indicate that PBDEs and 2,4,6 -TBP bioaccumulate in human placenta tissue and likely contribute to prenatal exposures to these environmental contaminants. Future studies are needed to determine if these joint exposures are associated with any adverse health measures in infants and children. Industrial waters in coal pyrolysis process, synthetic chemicals and oil and gas process contain phenol derivatives that are dangerous to the environment and needs to be removed, one of them is 2,4,6 -Trichlorophenol.

Optimal graphene loading of 0. Test results showed that addition of 2,4,6 -Trichlorophenol would subsequently increased 2,4,6 -Trichlorophenol conversion and enhanced hydrogen production linearly. The off-flavor of "tainted wine" is attributed mainly to the presence of 2,4,6 -trichloroanisole 2,4,6 -TCA in the wine.

In the present study the atmospheric pressure gas-phase ion chemistry, pertaining to ion mobility spectrometry, of 2,4,6 -trichloroanisole was investigated. In positive ion mode the dominant species is a monomer ion with a lower intensity dimer species with reduced mobility values K 0 of 1.

The limit of detection of the system for 2,4,6 -TCA dissolved in dichloromethane deposited on a filter paper was 2. In ethanol and in wine the limit of detection is higher implying that pre-concentration and pre-separation are required before IMS can be used to monitor the level of TCA in wine.

All rights reserved. Magnetic susceptibility of curium pnictides. The magnetic susceptibility of microgram quantities of CmP and CmSb has been determined with the use of a SQUID micromagnetic susceptometer over the temperature range 4. The fcc NaCl-type samples yield magnetic transitions at 73K and K for the phosphide and antimonide, respectively.

Together with published magnetic data for CmN and CmAs, these results indicate spatially extended exchange interactions between the relatively localized 5f electrons of the metallic actinide atoms. Alekseev, A. This report contains brief description of the Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer and results of measurements of neutron-induced fission cross sections for U, m Am, Cm, Cm, Cm and Cm done at this spectrometer. The detailed description of the experimental set up, measurements procedure and data treatment can be found in the JIA and JIA reports from the Institute of Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Science published in Russian.

Part 1 contains the first year report of the research contract and part 2 the second year report. Squamous metaplasia is a common pathologic condition in ocular surface diseases for which there is no therapeutic medication in clinic. Human conjunctival explants were cultured for up to 12 days under airlifting conditions. Pterygium clinical samples were cultured under airlifting conditions with or without APR- for 4 days. Airlift conjunctival explants resulted in increased stratification and intrastromal epithelial invagination.

This study is to develop a micromachining technology for a light guidepanel LGP mold, whereby micro dot patterns are formed on a LGP surface by a singleinjection process instead of existing screen printing processes.

The micro powder blastingtechnique is applied to form micro dot patterns on the LGP mold surface. The optimalconditions for masking, laminating, exposure, and developing processes to form the microdot patterns are first experimentally investigated. A LGP mold with masked micro patternsis then machined using the micro powder blasting method and the machinability of themicro dot patterns is verified.

As an additional approach, matte finishing, a special surface treatment method,is applied to the mold surface to improve the light diffusion characteristics, uniformity andbrightness of the LGP. The results of this study show that the applied powder blastingmethod can be successfully used to manufacture LGPs with micro patterns by just singleinjection using the developed mold and thereby replace existing screen printing methods.

Spectral analysis of allogeneic hydroxyapatite powders. Timchenko, P. Yu; Red'kin, N. In this paper we discuss the application of Raman spectroscopy to the in vitro analysis of the hydroxyapatite powder samples produced from different types of animal bone tissue during demineralization process at various acid concentrations and exposure durations. The derivation of the Raman spectrum of hydroxyapatite is attempted by the analysis of the pure powders of its known constituents.

Control of physicochemical properties of hydroxyapatite was carried out by Raman spectroscopy. Research results are compared with an infrared Fourier spectroscopy. Influence of deposition and spray pattern of nasal powders on insulin bioavailability.

The influence of the deposition pattern and spray characteristics of nasal powder formulations on the insulin bioavailability was investigated in rabbits. The deposition in the nasal cavity of rabbits and in a silicone human nose model after actuation of three nasal delivery devices Monopowder, Pfeiffer and experimental system was compared and related to the insulin bioavailability. Posterior deposition of the powder formulation in the nasal cavity lowered the insulin bioavailability. To study the spray pattern , the shape and cross-section of the emitted powder cloud were analysed.

It was concluded that the powder bulk density of the formulation influenced the spray pattern. Consequently, powders of different bulk density were prepared by changing the solid fraction of the freeze dried dispersion and by changing the freezing rate during freeze drying. After nasal delivery of these powder formulations no influence of the powder bulk density and of the spray pattern on the insulin bioavailability was observed.

Design and characterization of a mapping device optimized to collect XRD patterns from highly inhomogeneous and low density powder samples. We report on the development of a device designed to improve X-ray Powder Diffraction data acquisition through mapping coupled to a rotational motion of the sample.

The device and procedures developed aim at overcoming the experimental issues that accompany the analysis of inhomogeneous samples, such as powders , dust or aerosols deposited on a flat substrate. Introducing the mapping of the substrate on which powders are deposited and at the same time the rotation, we may overcome drawbacks associated to inhomogeneous distributions such as ring-like patterns due to the coffee stain effect generated by the evaporation of a solution.

Both particulate samples have been deposited on polycarbonate membranes from ultra-dilute solutions. Data show that this approach makes possible to collect XRD patterns useful to identify mineral fractions present in these low density samples. Analysis of pulsed-neutron powder diffraction patterns of the icosahedral quasicrystals Pd3Siu and AlCuLiMg three alloys as twinned cubic crystals with large units.

The low-Q peaks on three pulsed-neutron powder patterns total, U differential, and Pd differential of the icosahedral quasicrystal Pd3SiU have been indexed on the basis of an assumed cubic structure of the crystals that by icosahedral twinning form the quasicrystal.

The primitive unit cube is found to have edge length It is suggested that the unit contains eight complexes in the beta-W positions, plus some small interstitial groups of atoms, with each complex consisting of a centered icosahedron of 13 clusters, each of atoms with the icosahedral structure found in the body-centered cubic crystal Mg32 Al,Zn In this work, a new and facile dry printing method was developed for the direct fabrication of superhydrophobic patterns based on silica nanoparticles.

Mixtures of hydrophobic fumed silica nanoparticles and toner powder were printed on paper and polymer sheets using a commercial laser printer to produce the superhydrophobic patterns. The mixing ratio of the toner powder for the laser printer to hydrophobic silica was also investigated to optimize both the printing quality and the superhydrophobicity of the printed areas. The proper mixing ratio was then used to print various superhydrophobic patterns , including triangular, square, circular, and complex arrangements, to demonstrate that superhydrophobic surfaces with different patterns can be fabricated in a few seconds without any post-processing.

The research described here opens the possibility of rapid production of superhydrophobic surfaces with various patterns. Ultimately, the obtained findings may have a significant impact on applications related to self-cleaning, control of water geometry and position, fluid mixing and fluid transport.

An analysis of un-dissolved powders of instant powdered soup by using ultrasonographic image. Nowadays, there are many instant powdered soups around us. When we make instant powdered soup, sometimes we cannot dissolve powders perfectly. Food manufacturers want to improve this problem in order to make better products. Therefore, they have to measure the state and volume of un-dissolved powders.

Earlier methods for analyzing removed the un-dissolved powders from the container, the state of the un-dissolved power was changed. Our research using ultrasonographic image can measure the state of un-dissolved powders with no change by taking cross sections of the soup. We then make 3D soup model from these cross sections of soup. Therefore we can observe the inside of soup that we do not have ever seen. We construct accurate 3D model. We can visualize the state and volume of un-dissolved powders with analyzing the 3D soup models.

Analysis of tablet compaction. The continuum-based analysis of tableting makes use of an elasto-plastic model, which incorporates the elements of yield, plastic flow potential, and hardening, to describe the mechanical behavior of microcrystalline cellulose over the range of densities experienced during tableting. Linear elasticity is assumed with the elastic parameters, Young's modulus, and Poisson's ratio dependent on the relative density.

The calibration techniques were developed based on a series of simple mechanical tests including diametrical compression, simple compression, and die compaction using an instrumented die. The friction behavior is measured using an instrumented die and the experimental data are analyzed using the method of differential slices. The constitutive model and frictional properties are essential experimental inputs to the finite element-based model described in the companion article. Copyright Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Cork industries generate a considerable amount of solid waste during their processing. Its management implies a problem for companies that should reconsider its reuse for other purposes. In this work, an analysis of pelletizing of granulometric separation powder , which is one of the major wastes in cork industries and which presents suitable properties as an raw material for its thermal use, is studied.

However, its characteristic heterogeneity, along with its low bulk density which makes its storage and transportation difficult are restrictive factors for its energy use. Therefore, its densified form is a real alternative in order to make the product uniform and guarantee its proper use in boiler systems. Thus, the cork pellets from granulometric separation powder in the study met, except for ash content specification, the specifications in standard European Norm EN-Plus B for its application as fuel for domestic use.

Palosz, B. Fundamental limitations, with respect to nanocrystalline materials, of the traditional elaboration of powder diffraction data like the Rietveld method are discussed. A tentative method of the analysis of powder diffraction patterns of nanocrystals is introduced which is based on the examination of the variation of lattice parameters calculated from individual Bragg lines named the "apparent lattice parameter", alp.

We examine the application of our methodology using theoretical diffraction patterns computed for models of nanocrystals with a perfect crystal lattice and for grains with a two-phase, core-shell structure. We use the method for the analysis of X-ray and neutron experimental diffraction data of nanocrystalline diamond powders of 4, 6 and 12 nm in diameter. The effects of an internal pressure and strain at the grain surface is discussed. This is based on the dependence of the alp values oil the diffraction vector Q and on the PDF analysis.

It is shown, that the experimental results support well the concept of the two-phase structure of nanocrystalline diamond. Frequency analysis for modulation-enhanced powder diffraction. Periodic modulation of external conditions on a crystalline sample with a consequent analysis of periodic diffraction response has been recently proposed as a tool to enhance experimental sensitivity for minor structural changes. Here the intensity distributions for both a linear and nonlinear structural response induced by a symmetric and periodic stimulus are analysed.

The analysis is further extended for powder diffraction when an external perturbation changes not only the intensity of Bragg lines but also their positions. The derived results should serve as a basis for a quantitative modelling of modulation-enhanced diffraction data measured in real conditions.

Bile acid patterns in commercially available oxgall powders used for the evaluation of the bile tolerance ability of potential probiotics. This study aimed to analyze the bile acid patterns in commercially available oxgall powders used for evaluation of the bile tolerance ability of probiotic bacteria. Conjugated bile acids were profiled by ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography HPLC , free bile acids were detected as their p-bromophenacyl ester derivatives using reversed-phase HPLC after extraction with acetic ether, and total bile acids were analyzed by enzymatic-colorimetric assay.

The results showed that 9 individual bile acids i. The content of total bile acid among the three oxgall powders was similar; however, the relative contents of the individual bile acids among these oxgall powders were significantly different P powder from Sigma-Aldrich was closer to human bile in the ratios of glycine-conjugated bile acids to taurine-conjugated bile acids, dihydroxy bile acids to trihydroxy bile acids, and free bile acids to conjugated bile acids than the other powders were.

It was concluded that the oxgall powder from Sigma-Aldrich should be used instead of those from Oxoid and BD Difco to evaluate the bile tolerance ability of probiotic bacteria as human bile model. Particle size analysis of amalgam powder and handpiece generated specimens. The increasing interest in the elimination of amalgam particles from the dental waste DW stream, requires efficient devices to remove these particles.

The major objective of this project was to perform a comparative evaluation of five basic methods of particle size analysis in terms of the instrument's ability to quantify the size distribution of the various components within the DW stream. The analytical techniques chosen were image analysis via scanning electron microscopy, standard wire mesh sieves, X-ray sedigraphy, laser diffraction, and electrozone analysis.

Each analytical method quantified the examined DW particle stream components. However, X-ray sedigraphy, electrozone, and laser diffraction particle analyses provided similar results for determining particle distributions of DW samples. These three methods were able to more clearly quantify the properties of the examined powder and condensed amalgam samples. Furthermore, these methods indicated that a significant fraction of the DW stream contains particles less than 20 microm.

The findings of this study indicated that the electrozone method is likely to be the most effective technique for quantifying the particle size distribution in the DW particle stream. This method required a relative small volume of sample, was not affected by density, shape factors or optical properties, and measured a sufficient number of particles to provide a reliable representation of the particle size distribution curve.

An HPLC-ELSD method with good specificity and good accuracy was used for the studies of fingerprint and quantification of multi-components for cattle bile powder. An ELSD was used with a nitrogen flow-rate of 2. The average contents of glycocholic acid, glycodeoxycholic acid, taurocholic acid, taurodeoxycholic acid were Beyond that, the preprocessing and pattern recognition analysis of the chromatographic fingerprints of samples were applied with chemometric method.

The results of this chemometric analysis indicated that the samples from market and self-made samples were different signally, and four regions were noteworthy due to their great impact with poor chromatographic signal. All in one, because this HPLC-ELSD method was simple and accurate, it was suitable for the quality assessment and quality control of cattle bile powder and could be the technological base for its standard perfection. Rapid flow cytometry analysis of antimicrobial properties of nettle powder and cranberry powder.

Both nettle Urtica dioica and cranberry Vaccinium oxycoccus are widely known to have good influence on health. The aim of this study was to investigate antimicrobial properties of nettle powder and cranberry powder against Escherichia coli E. For FCM measurements samples were stained with fluorescent dyes.

The inhibitory effects of plant material on growth of E. FCM offers both a brilliant tool to investigate the kinetics of the growth of bacterium, since subsamples can be taken from the same liquid medium during the growing period and with fluorescent dyes a rapid method to investigate viability of the bacterium. Particle characteristics and lung deposition patterns in a human airway replica of a dry powder formulation of polylactic acid produced using supercritical fluid technology.

Polylactic acid PLA powders have been used as vector particles to carry pharmaceutical material. Drugs incorporated in the PLA powder can be retained in the lung for a longer period and may be more effective than free-form drugs. A new formulation of L-PLA dry powder , which was easy to disperse in the air, was produced by using a supercritical technology.

Electron microscopy analysis of the particles indicated that they were individual particles in bulk form and became aggregate particles after generation by the Turbuhaler. Aerodynamic particle size analysis using both an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer APS aerosol spectrometer and Andersen impactor showed that the aerodynamic size decreased as the flow rate in the Turbuhaler increased from Deposition patterns in the human respiratory tract were estimated using a realistic physical replica of human airways.

Deposition of the L-PLA was high In the lung region, the deposition totaled 7. As the flow rate increased, fewer aggregates were formed resulting in the smaller aerodynamic particles. As a result, more particles penetrated the oral airways and were available for deposition in the lung. Our results showed that L-PLA particles as manufactured by the supercritical technology could be used in a DPI that does not require the use of carrier particles to facilitate aerosol delivery.

Sensory analysis of cosmetic powders : personal care ingredients and emulsions. The powders are ingredients increasingly used in the formulation of cosmetic products for the sensory qualities they give. The objective of this study was the development of a lexicon and a referential for sensory characterization of these pure raw materials as well as formulations which contain them. Eleven expert panellists from Ecole de biologie industrielle de Cergy France developed a lexicon and a referential based on 12 powders of different chemical natures.

The selected attributes were then used for performing a quantitative descriptive profile of two powders and an emulsion containing or not one of these two powders. A lexicon has been established through a consensus approach of the panel. It contains seven attributes that allow the evaluation of the powders in four phases: the appearance, the pickup, the application and the after-feel. This lexicon contains definitions and assessment protocols and provides references products. The quantitative descriptive profile of two powders of the same chemical nature, but different in physical quality showed significant differences in sensory level between products.

These same attributes used to evaluate an emulsion containing the powder or not allowed to prove the contribution of these raw materials on the sensory specificities of the emulsion. The lexicon developed in this study can be used for assessment of other powders but also to define the quantities necessary to put in the formulation to meet the sensory characteristics of these raw materials powder.

Increased cytokine production by monocytes from human subjects who consumed grape powder was not mediated by differences in dietary intake patterns. We hypothesized that dietary grape powder increased the production of these cytokines by stimulated monocytes.

To test this hypothesis, we used hour dietary recall data to determine if differences in dietary patterns played a role in increased cytokine production. No differences in total energy, protein, carbohydrates, or fat intake in the diets were observed between the grape powder and placebo intervention periods.

There were no differences observed in consumption of meats and poultry, eggs, fish, vegetables, grains, total dairy, or nuts and seeds by the participants between the 2 intervention periods. When participants received the grape powder , the recall data showed decreased intakes of butyric and capric acids P analysis showed that total energy, protein, carbohydrates, and fats, and individual fatty acids did not influence the production of cytokines by monocytes.

The path analysis indicated that the increased cytokine production by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated monocytes from obese human subjects was caused by the grape powder and not mediated by differences in dietary intake. Published by Elsevier Inc. Analysis of ultrasonic effect on powder and application to radioactive sample compaction.

The effect of ultrasound on powder compaction was analyzed. The decreasing in the friction coefficient of the powder sample is derived theoretically. The compaction rate was improved by the ultrasound. We applied the effect to the compaction of environmental radioactive soil samples.

In many powder handling operations, inhomogeneity in powder mixtures caused by segregation could have significant adverse impact on the quality as well as economics of the production. Segregation of a minor component of a highly active substance could have serious deleterious effects, an example is the segregation of enzyme granules in detergent powders.

In this study, the effects of particle properties and bulk cohesion on the segregation tendency of minor component are analysed. The minor component is made sticky while not adversely affecting the flowability of samples. The segregation extent is evaluated using image processing of the photographic records taken from the front face of the heap after the pouring process. The optimum average sieve cut size of components for which segregation could be reduced is reported.

It is also shown that the extent of segregation is significantly reduced by applying a thin layer of liquid to the surfaces of minor component, promoting an ordered mixture. Point pattern analysis of FIA data.

Point pattern analysis is a branch of spatial statistics that quantifies the spatial distribution of points in two-dimensional space. Point pattern analysis was conducted on stand stem-maps from FIA fixed-radius plots to explore point pattern analysis techniques and to determine the ability of pattern descriptions to describe stand attributes.

Results indicate that the However, its role and effect in treating functional dyspepsia have not been well established. To assess the effect and safety of modified Chaihu Shugan powder for functional dyspepsia. We searched the published and unpublished studies up to August Only RCTs of modified Chaihu Shugan powder with or without prokinetic drugs versus prokinetic drugs in the patients diagnosed with functional dyspepsia were included.

Twenty-two clinical trials involving participants were included. No serious adverse events were described in the included trials. This meta- analysis showed that modified Chaihu Shugan powder alone or in combination with prokinetic drugs might be more effective than prokinetic drugs alone. However, with poor methodological quality, all the included trials were at high risk of bias. Further large-scale high-quality trials are required for assessment.

Thermal analysis and evolution of shape loss phenomena during polymer burnout in powder metal processing. Powder metallurgy technology involves manufacturing of net shape or near net shape components starting from metal powders. Polymers are used to provide lubrication during shaping and handling strength to the shaped component.

After shaping, the polymers are removed from the shaped components by providing thermal energy to burnout the polymers. Polymer burnout is one of the most critical step in powder metal processing. Improper design of the polymer burnout cycle will result in formation of defects, shape loss, or carbon contamination of the components.

The effect of metal particles on polymer burnout and shape loss were addressed in the present research. The study addressing the effect of metal powders on polymer burnout was based on the hypothesis that metal powders act to catalyze polymer burnout. The effect of metal powders additions was studied by monitoring the onset temperature for polymer degradation and the temperature at which maximum rate of weight loss occurred from the TGA data.

The catalytic behavior of the powders was verified by varying the particle size and shape of the L stainless powder. The addition of metal particles lowered the polymer burnout temperatures. The onset temperature for burnout was found to be sensitive to the surface area of the metal particle as well as the polymer distribution. Powders with low surface area and uniform distribution of polymer showed a lower burnout temperature.

The evolution of shape loss during polymer burnout was based on the hypothesis that shape loss occurs during the softening of the polymer and depends on the sequence of chemical bonding in the polymer during burnout. In situ observation of shape loss was carried out on thin beams compacted from admixed powders of L stainless steel and 1 wt.

To evaluate the effect of various magnesium stearate polymorphs using powder rheology and thermal analysis. The effects of magnesium stearate MgSt polymorphs-anhydrate MgSt-A , monohydrate MgSt-M , and dihydrate MgSt-D -on rheological properties of powders were evaluated using techniques such as atomic analysis and powder rheometry. Additional evaluation was conducted using thermal analysis , micromeritics, and tableting forces. Powder rheometry was studied using permeability, basic flow energy BFE , density, and porosity analysis.

Thermal conductivity and differential scanning calorimetric analysis of MgSt polymorphs were employed to elucidate MgSt effect on powder blends. The impact of MgSt polymorphs on compaction characteristics were analyzed via tablet compression forces. Finally, the distribution of atomized magnesium Mg ions as a function of intensity was evaluated using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy LIBS on tablets. The results from LIBS analysis indicated the dependency of the MgSt polymorphic forms on the atomized Mg ion intensity, with higher Mg ion intensity suggesting higher lubricity index i.

The results from lubricity index suggested the tendency of blends to over-lubricate based on the MgSt polymorphic forms. Finally, tableting forces suggested that MgSt-D and MgSt-A offered processing benefits such as lower ejection and compression forces, and that MgSt-M showed the most stable compression force in single or combined polymorphic ratios. These results suggested that the initial moisture content, crystal arrangement, intra- and inter-molecular packing of the polymorphs defined their effects on the rheology of lubricated powders.

Computer aided fringe pattern analysis. The paper reviews the basic laws of fringe pattern interpretation. The different techniques that are currently utilized are presented using a common frame of reference stressing the fact that these techniques are different variations of the same basic principle. Digital and analog techniques are discussed. Currently available hardware is presented and the relationships between hardware and the operations of pattern fringe processing are pointed out.

Examples are given to illustrate the ideas discussed in the paper. Analysis of powder samples available in small quantities has been carried out using metal-assisted gas plasma by utilizing a transversely excited atmospheric TEA CO2 laser. The powder was homogeneously mixed with Si grease, and the mixed powder was painted on a metal subtarget. When a TEA CO2 laser was directly focused on the metal subtarget at atmospheric pressure of He gas, a high-temperature He gas plasma was induced.

It is assumed that the powder particles were vaporized to be effectively atomized and excited in the gas plasma region. This method has been employed in the rapid analyses of elements in organic and inorganic powder samples present in small quantities. Detection of trace elements of Cr and Pb has been successfully made by using the supplement powder and loam soil, respectively.

The determination of the energy values and the composition analysis of M rifle black powders. The determination of the energy values, specifically the heat of combustion of various M black powders was the important part of the bullet efficiency investigations. The calorimetric bomb is commonly used for these determinations. Four M black powders from the different sources were used as samples for this research.

The chemical compositions of carbon C , hydrogen H , nitrogen N and sulfer S have also been determined. The results indicated that carbon and nitrogen compositions of sample S1 shown the highest values and provided little differences with sample S2 while sample S3 and S4 shown the lowest carbon and nitrogen percentage composition. The hydrogen composition of all samples was equally valued, however, only sample 3 and 4 displayed sulfur values while no sulfur values were detected from sample 1 and 2.

From these results, the heat values and chemical composition of M black powders were characterized their sources and the energy values might be estimated from the amount of carbon and nitrogen in the black powders. Thus, it would be possible to use this determination analysis in the forensic investigation. Therefore, any replacement of cement in concrete by waste materials can lead to immediate environmental benefits. In this paper, a possible use of waste ceramic powder in blended binders is studied.

At first, the chemical composition of Portland cement and ceramic powder is analyzed using the X-ray fluorescence method. The measurement of compressive strength is done according to the European standards for cement mortars. The thermal analysis results in the identification of temperature and quantification of enthalpy and mass changes related to the liberation of physically bound water, calcium-silicate-hydrates dehydration and portlandite, vaterite and calcite decomposition.

The portlandite content is found to decrease with time for all blends which provides the evidence of the pozzolanic activity of ceramic powder even within the limited monitoring time of 28 days. Geophysical log analysis. As part of a multidisciplinary investigation designed to assess the implications of coal-bed methane development on water resources for the Powder River Basin of southeastern Montana, six wells were drilled through Paleocene-age coal beds along a km east-west transect within the Tongue River drainage basin.

Analysis of geophysical logs obtained in these wells provides insight into the hydrostratigraphic characteristics of the coal and interbedded siliciclastic rocks and their possible interaction with the local stress field. Natural gamma and electrical resistivity logs were effective in distinguishing individual coal beds.

Full-waveform sonic logs were used to determine elastic properties of the coal and an attendant estimate of aquifer storage is in reasonable agreement with that computed from a pumping test. Inspection of magnetically oriented images of the borehole walls generated from both acoustic and optical televiewers and comparison with coal cores infer a face cleat orientation of approximately N33?? E, in close agreement with regional lineament patterns and the northeast trend of the nearby Tongue River.

The local tectonic stress field in this physiographic province as inferred from a nearby earthquake denotes an oblique strike-slip faulting regime with dominant east-west compression and north-south extension. These stress directions are coincident with those of the primary fracture sets identified from the televiewer logs and also with the principle axes of the drawdown ellipse produced from a complementary aquifer test, but oblique to apparent cleat orientation.

Consequently, examination of these geophysical logs within the context of local hydrologic characteristics indicates that transverse transmissivity anisotropy in these coals is predominantly controlled by bedding configuration and perhaps a mechanical response to the contemporary stress field rather than solely by cleat structure.

Direct analysis of herbal powders by pipette-tip electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Conventional electrospray ionization mass spectrometry ESI-MS is widely used for analysis of solution samples. In this study, we developed pipette-tip ESI-MS, a technique that combines pipette tips with syringe and syringe pump, for direct analysis of herbal powders , another common form of samples. We demonstrated that various herbal powder samples, including herbal medicines and food samples, could be readily online extracted and analyzed using this technique.

Various powder samples, such as Rhizoma coptidis, lotus plumule, great burdock achene, black pepper, Panax ginseng, roasted coffee beans, Fructus Schisandrae Chinensis and Fructus Schisandrae Sphenantherae, were analyzed using pipette-tip ESI-MS and quality mass spectra with stable and durable signals could be obtained. Both positive and negative ion modes were attempted and various compounds including amino acids, oligosaccharides, glycosides, alkaloids, organic acids, ginosensides, flavonoids and lignans could be detected.

Principal component analysis PCA based on the acquired mass spectra allowed rapid differentiation of closely related herbal species. All rights reserved. In this study, the origin and causes of cooked traditional Chinese medicine powder were reviewed, and a comprehensive analysis was made for the time background of modern traditional Chinese medicine formula granules and the future development trend, in order to provide reference for application and promotion of traditional Chinese medicine formula granules.

By reference to ancient medical books of previous dynasties, a system review was conducted for infancy, formation, maturity and transition of cooked traditional Chinese medicine powder , and a comprehensive analysis was made for the six factors of cooked traditional Chinese medicine powder 's maturity in the Song Dynasty. Efforts were made to collect domestic and foreign research literatures of modern formula granules, understand the detailed development, and conduct an objective analysis of the current clinical application of modern formula granules.

Development of high performance liquid chromatography method for miconazole analysis in powder sample. A simple high performance liquid chromatography HPLC method has been developed in this study for the analysis of miconazole, an antifungal drug, in powder sample.

The present HPLC method is applicable for the determination of miconazole in the powder sample with a recovery of The developed HPLC method provides short analysis time, high reproducibility and high sensitivity. Identification of low amount of irradiated spices red pepper, garlic, ginger powder with luminescence analysis.

For the identification of irradiated food, current analysis methods have limitations regarding presence and stability of radiation-induced markers. In this study, different spice blends with small quantity of different irradiated 0, 1 and 10 kGy spice powders , such as red pepper, garlic or ginger, were investigated using PSL and TL techniques. The blends with irradiated garlic powder provided more good results where identification was possible at 0.

However, the TL ratios of all spice blends were General aviation air traffic pattern safety analysis. A concept is described for evaluating the general aviation mid-air collision hazard in uncontrolled terminal airspace. Three-dimensional traffic pattern measurements were conducted at uncontrolled and controlled airports. Computer programs for data reduction, storage retrieval and statistical analysis have been developed. Initial general aviation air traffic pattern characteristics are presented.

These preliminary results indicate that patterns are highly divergent from the expected standard pattern , and that pattern procedures observed can affect the ability of pilots to see and avoid each other. Identification of a gamma-irradiated ingredient garlic powder in Korean barbeque sauce by thermoluminescence analysis. The sauce sample with nonirradiated garlic powder gave a background glow curve.

After pasteurization of the samples containing the irradiated ingredient, TL glow intensity decreased but did not change its shape or temperature range. As a result, the pasteurization of Barbeque sauces containing irradiated ingredients had reduced TL glow intensity, but the shape and temperature range of glow curve were still able to provide information required for confirming irradiation treatment.

To monitor the irradiated food in international market, thermoluminescence TL analysis is considered most promising identification technique because of its sensitivity and long-term stability. In this study the applicability of TL analysis to detect an irradiated ingredient garlic powder added in low quantity to a food matrix sauce was investigated.

The effect of processing pasteurization on TL results was also evaluated. A structural investigation into the compaction behavior of pharmaceutical composites using powder X-ray diffraction and total scattering analysis. To use advanced powder X-ray diffraction PXRD to characterize the structure of anhydrous theophylline following compaction, alone, and as part of a binary mixture with either alpha-lactose monohydrate or microcrystalline cellulose. Compacts formed from 1 pure theophylline and 2 each type of binary mixture were analyzed intact using PXRD.

A novel mathematical technique was used to accurately separate multi-component diffraction patterns. The pair distribution function PDF of isolated theophylline diffraction data was employed to assess structural differences induced by consolidation and evaluated by principal components analysis PCA. Simulated data suggest PDF dampening is attributable to molecular deviations from average crystalline position.

Samples compacted at different pressures were identified and differentiated using PCA. Samples compacted at common pressures exhibited similar inter-atomic correlations, where excipient concentration factored in the analyses involving lactose. Practical real-space structural analysis of PXRD data by PDF was accomplished for intact, compacted crystalline drug with and without excipient. PCA was used to compare multiple PDFs and successfully differentiated pattern changes consistent with compaction-induced disordering of theophylline as a single component and in the presence of another material.

Characterization of monoclinic crystals in tablets by pattern -fitting procedure using X-ray powder diffraction data. The purpose of this study is to characterize the monoclinic crystals in tablets by using X-ray powder diffraction data and to evaluate the deformation feature of crystals during compression.

The monoclinic crystals of acetaminophen and benzoic acid were used as the samples. The observed X-ray diffraction intensities were fitted to the analytic expression, and the fitting parameters, such as the lattice parameters, the peak-width parameters, the preferred orientation parameter and peak asymmetric parameter were optimized by a non-linear least-squares procedure. The Gauss and March distribution functions were used to correct the preferred orientation of crystallites in the tablet.

The March function performed better in correcting the modification of diffraction intensity by preferred orientation of crystallites, suggesting that the crystallites in the tablets had fiber texture with axial orientation. Although a broadening of diffraction peaks was observed in acetaminophen tablets with an increase of compression pressure, little broadening was observed in the benzoic tablets. These results suggest that "acetaminophen is a material consolidating by fragmentation of crystalline particles and benzoic acid is a material consolidating by plastic deformation then occurred rearrangement of molecules during compression".

A pattern -fitting procedure is the superior method for characterizing the crystalline drugs of monoclinic crystals in the tablets, as well as orthorhombic isoniazid and mannitol crystals reported in the previous paper. Practical soil analysis by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy employing subtarget supported micro mesh as a powder sample holder. A practical alternative of sample preparation technique is proposed for direct powder analysis using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy LIBS instead of the commonly adopted treatment of pelletizing the powder.

The resulted pellet is known to suffer from reduced sensitivity of emission. Besides, it may also give rise to interfering effect from the binder emission. We introduce in this report a more practical technique of using a subtarget supported micro mesh SSMM powder sample holder.

A comparison with the emission spectra measured from the pelletized powder , the spectrum obtained using the SSMM sample holder shows distinctly superior spectral quality marked by the absence of matrix effect found in pelletized powder samples, and the much stronger intensity due to the more effective shock wave plasma induced thermal excitation process produced by the hard subtarget in the sample holder.

Repeating the measurement on a number of the standard soil samples of various Pb contents is shown to yield a linear calibration line with practically zero intercept and a detection limit of less than 10 ppm. We have thus demonstrated the viability of the proposed powder sample holder for the development of practical and quantitative powder analysis in the field. Quantitative analysis of perfumes in talcum powder by using headspace sorptive extraction. Quantitative analysis of perfume dosage in talcum powder has been a challenge due to interference of the matrix and has so far not been widely reported.

In this study, headspace sorptive extraction HSSE was validated as a solventless sample preparation method for the extraction and enrichment of perfume raw materials from talcum powder. Sample enrichment is performed on a thick film of poly dimethylsiloxane PDMS coated onto a magnetic stir bar incorporated in a glass jacket. Sampling is done by placing the PDMS stir bar in the headspace vial by using a holder. The stir bar is then thermally desorbed online with capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

Nevertheless, a relatively larger amount of extracting phase is coated on the stir bar as compared to SPME. Sample amount and extraction time were optimized in this study. The method has shown good repeatability with relative standard deviation no higher than The method was also successfully applied in the quantitative analysis of talcum powder spiked with perfume at different dosages.

KGaA, Weinheim. Effectiveness of local vancomycin powder to decrease surgical site infections: a meta- analysis. Some surgeons use systemic vancomycin to prevent surgical site infections SSIs , but patients who do not carry methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus have an increased risk of SSIs when given vancomycin alone for intravenous prophylaxis.

Applying vancomycin powder to the wound before closure could increase the local tissue vancomycin level without significant systemic levels. However, the effectiveness of local vancomycin powder application for preventing SSIs has not been established. Our objective was to systematically review and evaluate studies on the effectiveness of local vancomycin powder for decreasing SSIs. Meta- analysis. We included observational studies, quasi-experimental studies, and randomized controlled trials of patients undergoing surgical procedures that involved vancomycin powder application to surgical wounds, reported SSI rates, and had a comparison group that did not use local vancomycin powder.

The primary outcome was postoperative SSIs. The secondary outcomes included deep incisional SSIs and S. We ran the searches from inception on May 9, with no limits on date or language. After reviewing titles or abstracts and 22 articles in detail, we included 10 independent studies and used a random-effects model when pooling risk estimates to assess the effectiveness of local.

Spectrochemical analysis of powdered biological samples using transversely excited atmospheric carbon dioxide laser plasma excitation. The aim of this study was to develop a simple laser induced breakdown spectroscopy LIBS method for quantitative elemental analysis of powdered biological materials based on laboratory prepared calibration samples.

The analysis was done using ungated single pulse LIBS in ambient air at atmospheric pressure. The material used for the analysis was a blue-green alga Spirulina, widely used in food and pharmaceutical industries and also in a few biotechnological applications. Analytical curves for Ba, Fe, Mg, Mn and Sr were constructed using laboratory produced matrix-matched calibration samples.

Results confirm that, in respect to its sensitivity and precision, TEA CO2 laser based LIBS can be successfully applied for quantitative analysis of macro and micro-elements in algal samples. The fact that nearly all classes of materials can be prepared as powders implies that the proposed method could be easily extended to a quantitative analysis of different kinds of materials, organic, biological or inorganic. Anthrax screening was performed on-site using a ruggedized analytical pathogen identification device R.

Turnaround time was approximately hours for either anthrax or UI. Between October 10, and October 11, , samples were analyzed. Of these, 57 were for anthrax screening only, 78 were for anthrax and UI, and 26 were for UI only. The only potential biological or chemical warfare agent identified cyanide was provided by law enforcement. Rapid anthrax screening and identification of unknown substances at the scene are useful to prevent costly interruption of services and potential referral for medical evaluation.

Spectrochemical analysis of powder using nm Nd-YAG laser-induced low-pressure plasma. The applicability of spectrochemical analysis of minute amounts of powder samples was investigated using an ultraviolet Nd-YAG laser nm and low-pressure ambient air. A large variety of chemical powder samples of different composition were employed in the experiment.

These included a mixture of copper II sulfate pentahydrate, zinc sulfide, and chromium III sulfate n-hydrate powders , baby powder , cosmetic powders , gold films, zinc supplement tablet, and muds and soils from different areas. The powder samples were prepared by pulverizing the original samples to an average size of around 30 microm in order to trap them in the tiny micro holes created on the surface of the quartz subtarget.

It was demonstrated that in all cases studied, good quality spectra were obtained with low background, free from undesirable contamination by the subtarget elements and featuring ppm sensitivity. A further measurement revealed a linear calibration curve with zero intercept. These results clearly show the potential application of this technique for practical qualitative and quantitative spectrochemical analysis of powder samples in various fields of study and investigation.

Characterization of powdered fish heads for bone graft biomaterial applications. The aim of this study was to define the chemical composition, morphology and crystallography of powdered fish heads of the species Argyrosomus regius for bone graft biomaterial applications. In addition, the calcium oxide CaO phase was found after the calcination of Powder A. Thermogravimetry analysis confirmed total mass losses of The microstructure of Powder A was mainly composed of different sizes and tubular shape, whereas Powder B showed agglomerated particles.

The high quantity of CaO and other oxides resemble the chemical composition of bone. In general, the powder can be considered as bone graft after transformation to hydroxyapatite phase. Garlic powder intake and cardiovascular risk factors: a meta- analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials.

The contradiction might be attributed to variations in the manufacturing process that can markedly influence the composition of garlic products. To investigate this issue further, we performed a meta- analysis of the effects of garlic powder on CVD risk factors. The mean difference in the reduction of FBG levels was Although preclinical studies suggest that garlic has potential preventive effects on cardiovascular disease CVD risk factors, clinical trials and reports from systematic reviews or meta-analyses present inconsistent results.

Glove donning powders carry latex proteins and disperse them into the workplace environment. We could differentiate between a small amount of protein actually bound to the powders and a larger amount carried by the powder. Enhanced binding of a major allergen, Hev b 5, to the starch powders was demonstrated by Western blot.

The D ELISA is able to measure total latex antigen, soluble and powder bound, simultaneously without the need to centrifuge the samples. Bloodstain pattern analysis --casework experience. The morphology of bloodstain distribution patterns at the crime scene carries vital information for a reconstruction of the events. Contrary to experimental work, case reports where the reconstruction has been verified have rarely been published.

This is the reason why a series of four illustrative cases is presented where bloodstain pattern analysis at the crime scene made a reconstruction of the events possible and where this reconstruction was later verified by a confession of the offender. The cases include various types of bloodstains such as contact and smear stains, drop stains, arterial blood spatter and splash stains from both impact and cast-off pattern.

Problems frequently encountered in practical casework are addressed, such as unfavourable environmental conditions or combinations of different bloodstain patterns. It is also demonstrated that the analysis of bloodstain morphology can support individualisation of stains by directing the selection of a limited number of stains from a complex pattern for DNA analysis.

The complexity of real situations suggests a step-by-step approach starting with a comprehensive view of the overall picture. This is followed by a differentiation and analysis of single bloodstain patterns and a search for informative details. Nuclear forensic analysis of uranium oxide powders interdicted in Victoria, Australia.

Nuclear forensic analysis was conducted on two uranium samples confiscated during a police investigation in Victoria, Australia. While aliquoting NSR-F for analysis , the body and head of a Tineid moth was discovered in the sample. The second sample, designated NSR-F, was also a depleted uranium powder. While aliquoting NSR-F for analysis , a metal staple of unknown origin was discovered in the sample. The presence of U and U in both samples indicates that the uranium feed stocks for these samples experienced a neutron flux at some point in their history.

The reactor burn-up calculated from the isotopic composition of the uranium is consistent with that of spent fuel from natural uranium NU fueled Pu production.

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