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Install Tivoli SA 2. Add or remove cluster nodes. Add or remove a network interface. Add or remove HADR databases. Add or remove an IP address. Create a new quorum device for the domain. Destroy the domain. Note: Ensure short-name is specified for cluster node name: Select an administrative task by number from the list below: 1. Enter your selection: 1 Do you want to review the status of each cluster node in the domain before you begin?
Yes 2. Add 2. Remove 1 Enter the host name of a machine to add to the domain: hasys3 Adding node hasys3 to the cluster Adding node hasys3 to the cluster was successful. Do you want to add another node to the domain?
No 2 Do you want to make any other changes to the cluster configuration? No 2 All cluster configurations have been completed successfully. Note: If the add node operation fails, ensure that the clustering software is installed on the third node. The clustering software can be installed directly from the DB2 installation media using the installSAM command. Since we had configured EtherChannel binding all Ethernet adapters available on each server, we do not need to create these network equivalencies.
To reiterate, there is no requirement to create these networks for cases where there is exactly one active network adapter per node as is the case in this example. However, there is no harm in creating these network equivalencies either, and we will show how they serve a more useful purpose in other variations of our three-node HA cluster topology, later in this paper. Take note of the network interface on each node that is defined in that CommGroup.
Note: Ensure short-name is specified and proceed. Select an administrative task by number from the list below: 1. Enter your selection: 2 Do you want to view a list of the existing networks and the associated network interface cards and continue to configure the domain? No 1 No networks were found in the cluster. Do you want to add or remove network interface cards to or from a network?
Remove 1 Enter the name of the network interface card: en2 Enter the host name of the cluster node which hosts the network interface card en2: harsys1 Enter the name of the network for the network interface card: en2 on cluster node: harsys1 1. Create a new public network for this network interface card. Create a new private network for this network interface card.
Do you want to add another network interface card to a network? No 1 Enter the name of the network interface card: en2. Enter the host name of the cluster node which hosts the network interface card en2: alaska Enter the name of the network for the network interface card: en2 on cluster node: alaska 1.
No 1 Enter the name of the network interface card: en2 Enter the host name of the cluster node which hosts the network interface card en2: hasys3 Enter the name of the network for the network interface card: en2 on cluster node: hasys3 1. Testing three-node DB2 HA cluster topology After implementing this three-node DB2 HA cluster topology, we successfully conducted the following eight test cases to validate the operational status of the cluster.
Forced "role-switch" Simulate primary DB2 instance crash and how to recover from it. Primary node failure Simulate a brief loss of primary node, and how cluster resources are moved to standby. Standby node failure Simulate a brief loss of standby and subsequent reintegration into the cluster after coming back online. Unexpected failure of arbitrator node or Simulate a brief loss of arbitrator node in the third site failure of third site and its implications to the cluster.
In addition, the command used to create the tiebreaker device is slightly different. Test SCSI-2 reservation i. The tiebreaker will work correctly if the tiebreaker disk can be reserved and unlocked from either node and if the disk cannot be reserved while it is locked by the other node.
List DB2 HA cluster status. If you want to create network equivalencies, see the required steps in the three-node topology configuration. However, in a scaled-down topology of our implementation for example, a metropolitan area network , you may already have a separate link available to carry iSCSI traffic. Wherever possible, having a separate and a secure network link to the iSCSI filer is recommended to minimize the risk of security vulnerabilities.
For the most part, iSCSI operates as a clear-text protocol. For security reasons, it is advisable to configure the iSCSI filer security controls to provide secure initiator login. The reason is that Fibre Channel, by definition, will be using a different communication path from Fibre Cabling to SAN switches from the Ethernet traffic. Hence, a Fibre Channel shared disk LUN has the ability to provide quorum in case of a complete network failure between sites.
On the other hand, you will need to set up and manage a complex cross-site SAN zoning infrastructure. Alternative multi-site DB2 HA topologies Now we discuss how the two topologies we have designed, tested, and discussed in this paper can be modified to address specific needs based on the network topology available. Note that our treatment of these alternative topologies will be brief, but should provide you with a good idea about how to plan and configure your setup.
This configuration is useful only if the private network path including switches, routers, Ethernet cabling, etc. Otherwise, it is not very useful since a network failure at one site will bring down both private and public links. The advantage of this topology is cluster communication redundancy. Note that these network equivalencies can only be created to group NICs local to the node.
The DB2 integrated HA solution does permit network equivalencies between subnets. Similar to our implementations in this paper, using a Service IP is not supported in this topology. Such a topology using an arbitrator node is shown in Figure 4. As you can see, the practicability to create such a multi-site subnet when nodes are placed in different continents like our topologies is highly unlikely. Hence, such a topology will mostly be applicable to sites located reasonably close such as within a metropolitan area or a within a state, for example.
Managing long-distance multi-site DB2 HA clusters When a cluster configuration spans across sites with a public cloud in the middle and private corporate trunks, you need to pay special attention to the behavior of your network topology. In particular, the network must be reliable and any firewalls must continue to allow access to the required ports as described in this document. A stable network and proper Firewall configuration are critical piece of a successful cluster solution.
Monitoring RSCT cluster communications Successful cluster operations depend on a stable network environment. Hence it's necessary to continuously monitor the status of the network, especially to record and monitor the latency between each node in the RSCT cluster. In case of higher network latency, by modifying RSCT Communication Group parameters such as, Sensitivity, Heartbeat period, and Ping Grace period, we can improve cluster stability with respect to network glitches.
We suggest that you start with these initial values given below and monitor and tune further based upon the characteristics of your own network topology. Missed HBs: 1. Missed HBs: 2. Missed HBs: 3. Limit: Limit: 10". Now look for message "Reachable nodes [ Record the latency between each node in your RSCT cluster and periodically keep track of the latency changes. Note that tiebreaker is never exercised except in the case where there is a potential split brain e.
Therefore, the only time we will notice the loss of the DISK tiebreaker is when one of the nodes has failed and the other node tried to acquire a lock on the tiebreaker device. Monitoring the quorum DISK tiebreaker A fairly rudimentary way to monitor the quorum disk tiebreaker device is to use the lspath command in AIX environments to periodically verify using a cron job if the hdisk used by the tiebreaker is accessibly on both nodes. The following shell script checktb.
Note that if you get a message that there has been no heartbeat connection for some time, it could mean that the Topology Services subsystem is not running. Disabling High Availability To disable the HA configuration for a particular instance, the db2haicu —disable command can be used.
After issuing this command, the system will not respond to any failures and all resource groups for the instance will be locked. Any maintenance work can be performed in this state without worrying about cluster manager intervention. The db2haicu maintenance mode When a system is already configured for High Availability, db2haicu runs in maintenance mode. Typing db2haicu on the primary or standby node will produce the menu shown below.
This menu can be used to carry out various maintenance tasks and change any Cluster Manager- specific, DB2-specific or network-specific values configured during the initial setup. This is the procedure if you wish to stop and start the entire cluster domain. Stopping the domain Now we are in the process of stopping the domain. We must now take the resources Offline. Wait one or two minutes for all the resources to come Offline, validated by issuing lssam command. Starting the domain Now we are in the process of starting the domain.
Now, we must bring the resources Online. Wait one or two minutes for all the resources to come Online, validated by issuing lssam command. There are two methods you can use to remove a RSCT cluster. If no other instance is using the domain at the time, the domain is deleted as well. As a good practice, it is recommended to run db2haicu with the delete option on an instance before it is made highly available. This makes sure that we are starting from scratch and not building on top of leftover resources.
For example, when running db2haicu with an XML file, any invalid attribute in the file will cause db2haicu to exit with a non-zero error code. However, before db2haicu is run again with the corrected XML file, one can run the —delete option to make sure that any temporary resources created during the initial run are cleaned up. Note that the db2haicu —delete option will leave the instances and the HADR replication unaffected.
That is, it will not stop the db2 instances or HADR replications. However, any IP addresses that were highly available are removed and no longer present after the command completes. If for some reason is cluster is in an inconsistent state e. Using RSCT commands Removing a peer domain involves removing the peer domain definition from each node on the peer domain. You can remove the peer domain definition by issuing the rmrpdomain command with the name of the peer domain, from any online node in the peer domain.
If all the nodes are reachable, then the command will attempt to remove the peer domain definition from all nodes. If a node is not reachable from the node where the rmrpdomain is run for example, the network is down or the node is inoperative , you will need to run the rmrpdomain command from each node that did not have their peer domain definition removed. Include the -f option to force the removal: rmrpdomain -f db2HAdomain.
You can also use the -f flag if an RSCT subsystem such as Topology Services or Group Services rejects the rmrpdomain command because a peer domain resource is busy. The -f flag will force the RSCT subsystems to take the peer domain offline and remove the peer domain definitions regardless of the state of peer domain resources.
Troubleshooting unsuccessful failovers In the case when a critical failure occurs on the primary cluster node, a failover action is initiated on the HADR resource group, and all HADR resources are moved to the standby machine. This can be due to the following reasons:.
Hence, if a takeover fails on your system, you might have to update this parameter to a larger value, and try the failure scenario again. Also, make sure that the dates and times on both the standby and the primary machines are synchronized. If peer window expiration is what caused the takeover to fail, a message indicating this would be logged in the DB2 diagnostic log. In such a state, if a primary node is to fail, a failover will not be initiated.
This is because at this point, the standby database cannot be trusted to be the complete copy of the primary, and hence not fit to take over. If possible configure both servers to a NTP server local to the time-zone of each node. IBM DB2 9. You may need to consult the Network, Storage, and Systems Administration personnel to collect the following information. Note: The Arbitrator node information is required only if you plan to implement the three- node cluster topology. Do not use a terminal session i.
Since both NICs on each node are already configured, we need to first detach each interface. Make sure "short name" i. Repeat the same process on the rest of the nodes. You must switch the values of the localHost and remoteHost parameters, when using it on the other node. TSA v2. Set the "Space Guarantee" option to volume and click next. Note that you must always create a flex volume inside an aggregate. Click Add. Click Apply to create the mapping.
You should now see the mapping created above. Now you should have a new device in your Linux host e. The stress client basically ran transactions against the primary node. Since we had configured ACR, we just observed whether the application had switched over to the standby automatically. In this case, to avoid a split-brain scenario, TSA will kill the DB2 instance on the old primary - i. At this point the primary node will lose the Master node Status in the cluster if it was indeed the Master at this point.
On standby you will see the following as TSA resource status lssam :. Sample cluster status output from standby node:. In this state, cluster resources may be recovered and controlled as needed by management applications. StorageRM daemon has started. RecoveryRM daemon has started. RecoveryRM group. And the cluster status output lssam is similar to the following:.
From the HMC shutdown menu we used the "Immediate" option, which will shut down the logical partition LPAR as quickly as possible, without notifying the logical partitions. However, since the old primary is still down, the new primary will be in "Disconnected" state. From the HMC shutdown menu we use the "Immediate" option, which will shut down the logical partition LPAR as quickly as possible, without notifying the logical partitions.
This state usually indicates that exactly half of the nodes that are defined in the peer domain are online. In this state cluster resources cannot be recovered although none will be stopped explicitly. When the primary sees the standby as down, the primary will reserve the disk TB in order for the node to be in quorum again.
From the HMC shutdown menu we use the "Immediate" option, which will shutdown the logical partition LPARs as quickly as possible, without notifying the logical partitions. Then standby will reserve the disk TB in order for the node to be in quorum again. ConfigRM daemon has started. Aug 31 alaska user:info syslog: ifconfig -a. The command lssrc -ls IBM.
RecoveryRM can be used for this. Control and Monitoring scripts The DB2 Integrated HA solution uses the following control and monitor scripts to manage the cluster resources. These scripts are an integral part of the solution and modification of them in any way is not supported. However, some knowledge of the scripts and what tasks they perform can be helpful in understanding cluster activity.
It is the HADR automation that we will discuss in more detail here. These cluster objects are units of control and are called resources. So again, no modification of these scripts is supported, but understanding them can be helpful especially when analyzing the behavior of the cluster using the SYSLOG on each machine. This script will stop the instance at this node appropriately.
Failover policies supported by DB2 Integrated HA Solution A failover policy specifies how a cluster manager should respond when a cluster element such as a network interface card or a database server fails. Round robin failover policy If there is a failure associated with one cluster domain node then the database manager will restart the work from the failed cluster domain node on any other node that is in the cluster domain.
Mutual failover policy To configure a mutual failover policy, you associate a pair of nodes in the cluster domain as a system pair. If there is a failure on one of the nodes in this pair, then the database partitions on the failed node will fail over to the other node in the pair. Mutual failover is only available in a DPF configuration.
N Plus M failover policy If there is a failure associated with one cluster node then the database partitions on the failed node will fail over to any other node that is in the cluster domain. Local restart failover policy If there is a failure on one of the cluster nodes, then the database manager will restart the database in place or locally on the same node that failed.
Custom failover policy When you configure a custom failover policy, you create a list of nodes in the cluster domain onto which the database manager can fail over. If a node in the cluster domain fails, the database manager will move the workload from the failed node to one of the nodes in the list that you specified.
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These examples have not been thoroughly tested under all conditions. IBM, therefore, cannot guarantee or imply reliability, serviceability, or function of these programs. The sample programs are provided "AS IS", without warranty of any kind. Checking for DB2 updates. Main menu entries for DB2 tools Linux. First Steps interface. Part 3. Installing a DB2 pureScale environment.
Configuring communication adapter ports and switches AIX. Installing and setting up OpenSSH. Setting up db2locssh. Shared storage support for DB2 pureScale environments. Creating required users for a DB2 pureScale Feature installation. User-managed file system support for DB2 pureScale environments. Registering a DB2 product or feature license key using the db2licm command. Creating a DB2 pureScale instance in installations without an instance.
Setting up a Network Time Protocol server. Adding communication adapter ports to a CF or member. Adding new members or an additional cluster caching facility. Adding a netname to a member. Adding a netname to a cluster caching facility Enable or disable remote root login.
Changing the db2sshid user ID to a different user. Re-adding a deleted db2sshid user ID. Chapter Installing a DB2 pureScale environment Linux. Modifying kernel parameters Linux. Configuring communication adapter ports and switches Linux. DB2 pureScale Feature in a virtual environment Linux. Creating a DB2 pureScale instance in a virtual environment using a single physical server Linux. Configuring a GDPC environment. Configuring the cluster for high availability in a GDPC environment. Creating the database in a GDPC environment.
Creating a shared file system. Retrieving file system information. Preparing the environment for a partitioned DB2 server Windows. Creating a DB2 home file system for a partitioned database environment. Creating a file system for a partitioned database system Linux. Creating a DB2 home file system for a partitioned database system Solaris. Creating required users for a DB2 server installation in a partitioned database environment Linux.
Creating required users for a DB2 server installation in a partitioned database environment Solaris Operating System. Part 4. Setting up a partitioned database environment. Verifying the installation. Verifying access to the registry on the instance-owning computer Windows. Format of the DB2 node configuration file. Installing database partition servers on participating computers using a response Windows. Part 5. Installing DB2 products and features using a response file.
Response file installation basics. Response file uninstall basics. Response file considerations for a DB2 pureScale environment. Installing database partition servers on participating computers using a response file Linux and UNIX. Response file installation of DB2 overview Windows. Setting up shared access to a directory Windows Editing a response file Windows.
Installing a DB2 product using a response file Windows. Response file error codes Windows. Response file installation using a batch file Windows. Uninstalling a DB2 product, feature, or language using a response file Windows. Available sample response files. Response file keywords. Exporting and importing a profile. Stopping DB2 processes during an interactive installation Windows. Stopping DB2 processes during a response file installation Windows. Part 6. Installing the DB2 Information Center.
DB2 Information Center installation options. Starting or stopping the Information Center Linux and Windows. Part 7. Part 8. Part 9. Using the Guardium Installation Manager Client. Applying fix packs. Applying fix packs in DB2 database environments. Universal versus product-specific fix packs Preparing to install a fix pack. Checking fix pack prerequisites. Getting fix packs.
Uncompressing fix packs Windows. Installing a fix pack Windows. Installing a fix pack for a single database product Windows. Installing a fix pack for multiple database products Windows. Installing a fix pack using a response file Windows. Installing a fix pack in a Microsoft Cluster Server environment Windows.
After installing a fix pack. Binding bind files after installing fix packs. Uninstalling fix packs. Applying fix packs in DB2 pureScale environments. Online fix pack updates in DB2 pureScale environments. Database and instance operations affected by an online fix pack update in progress.
Preparing to install a fix pack. Installing online fix pack updates to a higher code level in a HADR environment. Installing online fix pack updates to a higher code level in a GDPC environment. Installing offline fix pack updates to a DB2 pureScale instance simplified method. Installing offline fix pack updates to a DB2 pureScale instance manual method. Updating an instance to a higher level within a release using the db2iupdt command. Canceling online fix pack updates.
Converting instances to a new DB2 database product. Pre-conversion tasks for DB2 pureScale environments. Verifying that your databases are ready for a DB2 pureScale environment. Converting table spaces for a DB2 pureScale environment.
Backing up databases when converting to a DB2 pureScale environment. Updating an instance to a DB2 pureScale instance with the db2iupdt command. Post-conversion tasks for a DB2 pureScale environment. Adjusting database configuration parameters to meet DB2 pureScale environment requirements. Part Uninstalling DB2 database products.
Uninstalling your DB2 database product Windows. Manually cleaning a DB2 managed clustered file system. DB2 technical information. Part 1. Installation requirements for DB2 database products Before you install your DB2 database product, ensure that the system you choose meets the necessary operating system, hardware, software, communications, disk and memory requirements. The db2prereqcheck command checks whether your system meets the prerequisites for the installation.
With the SPCR tool, you can locate and find complete lists of supported operating systems, system requirements, prerequisites, and optional supported software for DB2 database products. Disk and memory requirements on page 41 The disk space required for your product depends on the type of installation you choose and the type of file system you have. Likewise, memory requirements are affected by the size and complexity of your database system. For additional installation considerations for each operating system, refer to the following topics: v v v v v.
Note: The minimum screen resolution that is required for a successful installation is pixels by pixels. Chapter 1. Checking installation prerequisites by using the db2prereqcheck command You can use the db2prereqcheck command to check the software prerequisites of a specific DB2 version, generate a report file, and perform other tasks. Using the db2prereqcheck command, you can determine whether your system satisfies the DB2 installation prerequisites without having to start the DB2 installation.
The DB2 product comes with the db2prereqcheck binary and the DB2prereqs. These files are found in the folder where the installation image is located. The DB2prereqs. You must not modify the contents of the file. You must run the db2prereqcheck command in the directory where the installation image is located. If you run the db2prereqcheck command with no parameters, it determines whether the system meets the prerequisites for all the DB2 releases and fix packs that are defined in the resource XML file.
Important: The behavior of the db2prereqcheck command is changed as of DB2 Version For more information, see "db2prereqcheck - Check installation prerequisites" topic. For example, to check whether the prerequisites are met for DB2 Version To check whether the prerequisites are met for DB2 Version Specify the full report file name path to generate the report in another directory. The db2prereqcheck command does not validate these levels. If the db2prereqcheck command indicates that the system fails to meet the prerequisite, DBTE, as shown in the following example, Validating ofed Required minimum version and release for ofed: 1.
Sample db2prereqcheck command output The following sample output was generated on a AIX operating system. Use the -p parameter for a DB2 pureScale installation. Required minimum operating system kernel level : "6. Actual operating system kernel level: "6. Requirement matched.
Validating AIX technology level and service pack Required minimum technology level: 6 Service pack: 5 Requirement matched. Validating uDAPL Version: " The following sample output was generated on a AIX operating system. DBTI The db2prereqcheck utility has confirmed that all installation prerequisites were met for DB2 database server. Use the -c parameter for a client installation. DBTI The db2prereqcheck utility has confirmed that all installation prerequisites were met for DB2 database client.
Validating kernel level Use the -s parameter to display a validation summary only. The following sample output was generated on a Linux operating system. Use the -p parameter for aDB2 pureScale installation.
Required minimum version and release for sles-release: Required minimum kernel level : 2. Validating libc. Validating libaio. Loading of libaio. Validating ofed Use the -p and -t parameters to validate prerequisites for a specific network configuration. The output shows the results of validating a single InfiniBand port cluster configuration in a DB2 pureScale environment.
Actual operating system distribution Version: "6"; Service pack: "1". Validating Infiniband Support Package: libibcm. Package or file found: libibcm. Validating Infiniband Support Package: librdmacm. Package or file found: librdmacm. Package or file found: libcxgb3. Validating High Performance Networking Package: libibverbs-rocee.
Package or file found: libibverbs-rocee. Validating High Performance Networking Package: libmlx4-rocee. Package or file found: libmlx4-rocee. All requirement matched for DB2 Server version All requirement matched for DB2 Client version Actual version of package: Use the -nm parameter or the -nl parameter to validate the type of adapter.
Validating "Adapter and " If you plan to use a database that resides on this computer, install a DB2 server. Chapter 2. Review DB2 upgrade information if applicable. Installation image If you downloaded an installation image, untar the file. Install your DB2 product using one of the available methods: v The DB2 Setup wizard v A silent installation using a response file v Payload file deployment For DB2 servers, you can use the DB2 Setup wizard to perform installation and configuration tasks, such as: v Selecting DB2 installation type typical, compact, or custom.
If you installed a DB2 server using a method other than the DB2 Setup wizard, post-installation configuration steps are required. Chapter 3. An overview of installing DB2 database servers Windows This topic outlines the steps for installing your DB2 server product on Windows. Review DB2 database upgrade information if applicable. Installation image If you downloaded an installation image, extract the file.
You can use the DB2 Setup wizard to perform installation and configuration tasks, such as: v Selecting DB2 database installation type typical, compact, or custom. By default, it is same as the DAS user. Chapter 4. Non-root installation overview Linux and UNIX The DB2 installer automatically creates and configures a non-root instance during a non-root installation. As a non-root user, you can customize the configuration of the non-root instance during the installation.
You can also use and maintain the installed DB2 database product without root privileges. The non-root installation of a DB2 database product has one DB2 instance with most features enabled by default. A non-root installation can be attractive for many groups, such as: v Enterprises that have thousands of workstations and users who want to install a DB2 database product without consuming a system administrator's time v Application developers who are not typically system administrators but use DB2 database products to develop applications v Independent Software Vendors ISVs who develop software that does not require root user authority yet embeds a DB2 database product Although non-root installations have most of the function of root installations, there are some differences and limitations.
You can lift some of the limitations by having a root user run the db2rfe command. Differences between root installations and non-root installations In addition to a few limitations, the directory structure of a non-root installation is slightly different than the directory structure of a root installation. During a root installation, subdirectories and files for the DB2 database product are created in a directory of the root user's choosing.
Unlike root users, non-root users cannot choose where DB2 database products are installed. The layout of the subdirectories within the sqllib directory of a non-root is similar to that of a root installation. For root installations, multiple instances can be created.
Instance ownership is associated with the user ID under which the instance was created. Non-root installations can have only one DB2 instance. The non-root installation directory contains all of the DB2 database product files and instance files with no soft links. The following table summarizes the differences between root installations and non-root installations.
Table 1. Differences between root installations and non-root installations Criteria. Differences between root installations and non-root installations continued Criteria. Program files and instance files. The DB2 database product is ready for use immediately after installation. No need to uninstall the old version before installing the new version. Install new version, and upgrade the instance, together.
Limitations of non-root installations In addition to the differences between root installations and non-root installations, there are several limitations on non-root installations. This topic discusses the limitations to help you decide if you want to use a non-root installation. However, a non-root-installation DB2 instance can be configured to use a locally installed DB2 Information Center if it is installed on the same computer.
Features and tools limitations The following features and tools are not available in non-root installations: v The DB2 Administration Server DAS and its associated commands: dascrt, dasdrop, daslist, dasmigr, and dasupdt v The ability for the db2governor to increase priority is not supported v Automatic starting of non-root DB2 instances at system reboot is not supported Health monitor limitations The following health monitor features are not supported in non-root installations: v Running script or task actions on alert occurrences v Sending alert notifications Partitioned database limitation Only single-partition databases are supported in non-root installations.
You cannot add additional database partitions. Listing DB2 database products The output produced by the db2ls command, when run as a non-root user, is different than the output produced when run as a root user. For details, refer to the db2ls command topic. DB2 copies Each non-root user can have only one copy of a DB2 database product installed.
DB2 instance limitation In non-root installations, one DB2 instance is created during installation. Additional instances cannot be created. DB2 instance actions can be performed only by the instance owner Root installations and non-root installations can coexist on the same computer in different installation paths. A DB2 instance created by a user with root user authority can be updated or dropped only by a user with root user authority.
Upgrading limitation Root instances cannot be upgraded to a non-root instance. Manual kernel parameter updates required Automatic Linux kernel parameter modification is not supported for non-root installations. Kernel parameters in non-root installations must be updated manually as described in the "Modifying Kernel Parameters Linux " topic. Post-installation actions can be performed only by the DB2 instance owner Root installations and non-root installations can coexist on the same computer.
However, only the original non-root user who installed the DB2 database product can perform subsequent actions such as: v Applying fix packs v Adding features v Installing add-on products Adjusting ulimit values The ulimit command on UNIX and Linux operating systems sets or reports user resource limits, such as data and stack limits.
For root instances, the database server dynamically updates required ulimit settings without changing the permanent settings. However, for non-root instances, the ulimit settings can only be checked during installation. A warning message is displayed if the settings are inadequate. Root user authority is required to change the ulimit settings. Limitations that can be overcome by running db2rfe There are further limitations on non-root installations which can be overcome by running the db2rfe command.
This ability applies only to AIX. On other operating systems, user data limits must be increased manually. Run the Enable root features for non-root install command db2rfe to enable these features and abilities. Running the db2rfe command is optional, and must be run by a user with root user authority.
Authentication type in non-root installations Operating system-based authentication is the default authentication type for DB2 database products. Since non-root installations do not support operating system-based authentication, if you choose not to run the db2rfe command after installing your DB2 database product as a non-root user, then you must manually set the authentication type. Thin server instance topology overview Linux and AIX A thin server instance topology or thin server instance environment consists of one non-root DB2 server instance and one or more thin DB2 server instances.
In this topology, a non-root installation of DB2 database server product is performed only on the code server, rather than on each of the DB2 servers in the network. Only a minimal amount of code and configuration is required on each of the DB2 servers that deploy a thin server instance topology. You can create a thin server instance either locally on a code server or on a remote server. In the first case, perform a non-root installation of DB2 database server product on a code server and share the DB2 installation path as a read-only copy to other non-root users in the network through Network File System NFS.
Multiple non-root users from the same system code server can access the read-only copy of the shared DB2 installation path and create a thin server instance locally on the code server. For example, if a DB2 database server is installed on System A code server by a non-root user db2inst1 and if that installation path is shared through NFS, then another non-root user db2inst2, can use the thin server instance environment to create an instance from the shared location of System A.
In the second case, perform a non-root installation of DB2 database server product on a code server and share the DB2 installation path as a read-only copy to other non-root users in the network through NFS Network File System. Multiple non-root users from the remote servers that mount the read-only copy of the shared DB2 installation path on the code server can create a thin server instance locally on the remote servers.
For example, if a DB2 database server is installed on System A code server by a non-root user db2inst1 and if that installation path is shared through NFS and mounted on System B remote server , then another non-root user db2inst3 can use the thin server environment to create an instance from the shared location of System A. Code server. The instances that are created for db2inst2 and db2inst3 have links to the DB2 binary files on the shared location of System A.
The DB2 configuration-related files are available as local files on System B. Thin server instance does not support database partition and pureScale features. Deploying a thin server instance gives you the advantage of reducing the disk space requirements on multiple systems in the network. You can create, update, drop, list, and upgrade non-root instances on multiple systems by performing a non-root installation only on one system code server.
If you use thin server instance environment for managing instances on remote servers, both the code server where the DB2 database server is installed and the remote server that mounts the shared DB2 installation path, must have the same operating system. For example, if the operating system of the code server is aix64, then the operating system of the remote server must also be aix If you use thin server instance on remote server, DB2 programs must be loaded from a code server by using a LAN connection.
The extent of performance loss at program initialization time depends on variables such as the load on speed of both the network and the code server. The following table shows the instance commands that are supported for managing non-root instances in a thin server instance environment. Table 2. Commands that are supported on code servers and remote servers in a thin server instance environment Systems.
Note: These commands are not supported for an instance that is automatically created on the code server during non-root DB2 installation:. Setting up a thin server instance environment Linux and AIX You can set up a thin server instance environment by performing a non-root DB2 installation on a code server and sharing a read-only copy of the DB2 installation path to other users in the network by using Network File System NFS.
Before you begin v Ensure that you understand the limitations of non-root DB2 installations. For more information, see Limitations of non-root installations on page Procedure To set up a thin server instance environment: 1. Log in to the code server as a non-root user. Perform a non-root DB2 installation on the code server. For more information, see Installing DB2 database servers as a non-root user on page Share the non-root copy of DB2 installation path on the code server as a read-only copy to other systems in the network by using NFS.
Perform one of the following set of substeps: v On Linux operating systems, perform the following substeps: a. Log in to the code server as a root user. Start the NFS server by issuing the following commands. Issue the smit nfs command. Click the Add a Directory to Exports List icon.
Click the Mode to export directory icon. Select read-only. In the HOSTS and netgroups allowed client access field, enter the name of the code server and remote server. Click OK. Mounting a thin server instance Linux and AIX In a thin server instance environment, to enable instance management functions on remote servers you must mount the shared DB2 installation path on the code server on each of the remote server in the network.
For more information, see Limitations of non-root installations on page 18 Chapter 4. About this task In a thin server instance environment, a read-only copy of non-root DB2 installation path on the code server is exported by using Network File System NFS.
To use the thin server instance on remote servers in the network, you must create a mount point on each of the remote server in the network. The code server that exports the file system has the file system mounted locally. This task explains how to mount the shared DB2 installation path of the code server on the remote server.
Procedure 1. Log in to the remote server as a root user. Perform the following steps. For Linux: a. Verify that the mount point on the code server is listed from the remote server as shown in the following example: showmount -e SYSTEM A. For AIX: a. Enter the smit nfs command. Click the Add a File System for Mounting icon. The path name of the mount point is where you must create the DB2 home directory.
Enter the hostname of the computer where you exported the file system in the HOST where the remote directory resides field. This value is the host name of the computer where the file system that you are mounting was created. Set the Mount file system soft or hard field to hard. A soft mount means that the computer does not try for a long period to remotely mount the directory.
A hard mount means that your computer tries. This might cause problems in the event of a system crash. It is recommended that you set this field to hard. The remaining fields can be left to the default settings. Log out of the remote server. Supported instance management functions in a thin server instance environment As of DB2 Version The following instance commands are supported in a thin server instance environment. They are not supported for an instance that is automatically created during a non-root DB2 installation on the code server.
They are not supported for an instance that is created locally on the remote server. You can use the db2iupgrade command to upgrade the dbm cfg configurations to a newer version in a thin server instance environment. Creating non-root thin server instances Linux and AIX You can create non-root thin server instances locally on a code server and on a remote server in a thin server instance environment.
Procedure To create non-root thin server instances: 1. Set up a thin server instance environment on the code server as a non-root user. For example, db2inst1. Create non-root thin server instances by performing one of the following set of substeps: v To create another non-root thin server instance locally on the code server, perform the following substeps: a.
Log in to the code server as another non-root thin server instance user. For example, db2inst2. Access the read-only copy of the DB2 installation path that is exported from the code server. To enable root-based features for the non-root thin server instance on code server, perform the following substeps: 1 Log in to the code server as a root user.
This configuration file is input to the db2rfe command. The following parameters are available in thedb2rfe. As a root user, mount the thin server instance on the remote server as a read-only file system. Log in to the remote server as a non-root instance owner. For example, db2inst3 c. To enable root-based features for the non-root thin server instances on remote server, perform the following substeps: 1 Log in to the remote server as a root user.
Updating non-root thin server instances Linux and AIX You can update non-root thin server instances locally on a code server and on a remote server in a thin server instance environment. Procedure To update non-root thin server instances: 1. Log in to the code and remote servers as the user who owns the instance. Stop all instances by using the db2stop command.
Apply fix pack to the non-root DB2 installation on the code server. Update non-root thin server instances by performing one of the following set of substeps: v To update another non-root thin server instance that was created locally on the code server, perform the following substeps: a.
Dropping non-root thin server instances Linux and AIX You can drop non-root thin server instances locally on a code server and on a remote server in a thin server instance environment. Procedure To drop non-root thin server instances: 1.
Log in to the code server as non-root user and ensure that the default instance that was created during non-root installation on the code server, is running and not dropped. Drop non-root thin server instances by performing one of the following set of substeps: v To drop the non-root thin server instance that was created locally on the code server, perform the following substeps: a. Log in to the code server as the user who owns the thin server instance.
Stop the instance on the code server by issuing the db2stop command. Run the db2idrop command:. Log in to the remote server as a non-root user who owns the non-root thin server instance. Stop the instance on the remote server by issuing the db2stop command. Upgrading non-root thin server instances Linux and AIX You can upgrade non-root thin server instances on a code server and on a remote server in a thin server instance environment.
Procedure To upgrade non-root thin server instances: 1. Perform a non-root installation of DB2 database product on the code server and upgrade the non-root instance. For more information, see. Upgrade non-root thin server instances by performing one of the following set of substeps: v To upgrade the non-root thin server instance on the code server, perform the following substeps: a.
Installing DB2 database servers as a non-root user Most DB2 database products can be installed as a non-root user. Before you begin Before you install any DB2 database product as a non-root user, be aware of the differences between root installations and non-root installations, and the limitations of non-root installations. Prerequisites for installing a DB2 database product as a non-root user are: v You must be able to mount the installation DVD, or have it mounted for you.
Cannot include accented characters If existing user IDs are specified instead of creating new user IDs, make sure that the user IDs: - Are not locked - Do not have expired passwords The hardware and software prerequisites that exist for the product you are installing apply to the non-root user just as they do for root users.
Ensure that kernel parameters are updated as required. On Linux, kernel parameters are managed automatically for root installation but must be updated manually for non-root installations. Your home directory must be a valid DB2 path. About this task Installing DB2 database products as a non-root user is transparent to the non-root user.
In other words, there is nothing special a non-root user needs to do to install a DB2 database product, other than being logged being logged in as a non-root user. Procedure To perform a non-root installation: 1. Log in as a non-root user 2. Install your DB2 database product using any of the methods available to you. After the DB2 database product is installed, you must open a new login session to use the non-root DB2 instance.
Alternatively, you can use the same login. What to do next After the DB2 database product is installed, verify your operating system user process resource limits ulimits. If the minimum ulimit values are not met, the DB2 engine can encounter unexpected operating resource shortage errors.
These errors can lead to a DB2 database system outage. Enabling root-based features in non-root installations with db2rfe There are several features and abilities in non-root installations that are initially unavailable but can be enabled by running a the db2rfe command. Procedure To enable the features and abilities that are initially unavailable in non-root installations: 1. Locate the sample configuration files. Copy one of the sample configuration files to a different location so the original file remains unaltered.
Update the copied configuration file as needed. On other operating systems, a user with root authority needs to set ulimit values manually. Any port values that are provided are examples. Ensure the port values you assign are free. Log in with root user authority.
What to do next To keep root-based features enabled on non-root installations, rerun the db2rfe command after applying fix packs or upgrading to a new version. Reducing the size of your DB2 product installation image You can use the db2iprune command to reduce the size of a DB2 database product installation image. About this task This tool is useful for large-scale deployments of the DB2 database product, and for embedding DB2 within an application. The db2iprune utility removes the files associated with those features and languages based on an input file.
The input file. The result is a new, smaller DB2 installation image that can be installed using the regular DB2 installation methods. Reducing the size of an installation image is also referred to as pruning the installation image. Be aware of the following restrictions before proceeding with pruning an image: v Some components have dependency.
A component can be pruned only if there is no other component not being pruned that depends on it. For example,. Procedure To reduce the size of your DB2 database product installation image: 1. Create a customized input file using the sample input file.
This keyword is optional. More than one DB2 database product can be removed at a time, but at least one product must remain in the installation image. More than one DB2 component can be removed at a time. When a component is removed, the specified component is removed from all applicable products. The English language is mandatory and cannot be removed. More than one language can be removed at a time. When a language is removed, the specified language is removed from all applicable products.
From the command line, run the db2iprune command. For information about the command parameters, see db2iprune - Reduce installation image size command. Results You can use any of the regular DB2 installation methods to install and maintain a pruned DB2 installation image: DB2 Setup Wizard installation For a typical installation, the regular typical components for that product are installed without the components removed by the db2iprune command. For a compact installation, the regular compact components for that product are installed without the components removed by the db2iprune command.
For a custom installation, only the remaining components are displayed in the feature selection panel. The components removed by the db2iprune command are not displayed as optional components to install. However, on Linux and UNIX operating systems, the removed languages will still be displayed in the language selection panel. In this case, ensure that you do not select a language that has been removed from the image using the db2iprune command; if you select a language that has been removed, you will receive an error message.
Response file installation If you plan to use a response file for an unattended installation, ensure that you specify only the languages and features available in the DB2 pruned installation image. If you select a component that has been removed, you will get an error message. Fix pack installation Since Windows DB2 fix packs are full installation images, the db2iprune command can be used with fix pack images.
The fix pack application process is the same for full and pruned images. When the DB2 fix pack is installed, it detects and updates only the components that were installed and ignores any components that are not installed. If the db2iprune command is used with a fix pack image, ensure that the fix pack image contains all of the components that were initially installed.
If the fix pack image does not contain all the installed components, you will receive an error about missing files when the fix pack application is attempted. Chapter 5. This DB2 Information Centre topic might be removed in a future release or fix pack.
Note: 1. On Windows x86 and Linux on x v the bit SDK is installed v bit applications and Java external routines are supported 4. On all supported platforms except Windows x86, and Linux on x86 : v bit applications are supported v bit Java external routines are not supported v bit applications and Java external routines are supported. The listed levels and forward-compatible later versions of the same levels are supported.
Because there are frequent SDK for Java fixes and updates, not all levels and versions have been tested. If your database application has problems that are related to the SDK for Java, try the next available version of your SDK for Java at the given level. For running Java stored procedures and user-defined functions that were built by prior DB2 releases, refer to Table 1, column "Java Stored Procedures and User Defined Functions" for details. Table 3. To use bit AES encryption, set encryptionAlgorithm to 2.
A minimum level of SDK for Java 1. It is recommended to remove SDK for Java 1. Java 6 is sufficient if you need to use JDBC 4. Java 7 is required if you need to use JDBC 4. Chapter 6. Preparing to install DB2 database servers Before installing DB2 database server, ensure that the necessary prerequisites are met, such as disk, memory, and paging space requirements. There are also additional prerequisites that depend on your operating system. You can also install multiple DB2 copies on the same computer.
For Windows systems, there is a difference between installing one or multiple DB2 copies. Each DB2 copy can be at the same or different code levels. A DB2 copy is a group of DB2 products that are installed at the same location. Root installation of DB2 products can be installed to an installation path of your choice. Disk and memory requirements Ensure that an appropriate amount of disk space is available for your DB2 environment, and allocate memory accordingly.
Disk requirements The disk space required for your product depends on the type of installation you choose and the type of file system you have. The DB2 Setup wizard provides dynamic size estimates based on the components selected during a typical, compact, or custom installation. Remember to include disk space for required databases, software, and communication products. If the directory that you have specified as the install path contains subdirectories or files, your DB2 installation might fail.
On Windows operating systems the following free space is recommended in additional to that of your DB2 product: v 40 MB in the system drive v 60 MB in the temporary folder specified by the temp environment variable. Memory requirements Memory requirements are affected by the size and complexity of your database system, the extent of database activity, and the number of clients accessing your system.
These requirements do not include any additional memory requirements for other software that is running on your system. For IBM data server client support, these memory requirements are for a base of five concurrent client connections. For DB2 server products, the self-tuning memory manager STMM simplifies the task of memory configuration by automatically setting values for several memory configuration parameters.
When enabled, the memory tuner dynamically distributes available memory resources among several memory consumers including sort, the package cache, the lock list, and buffer pools. Paging space requirements DB2 requires paging, also called swap to be enabled. It is only strictly required by DB2 on the Solaris and HP platforms due to their use of early paging space allocation.
Installation prerequisites for database servers Before you install your DB2 database product, ensure that the system you choose meets the necessary operating system, hardware, software, communications, disk, and memory requirements. Note: This topic does not apply to non-root installations. If you are using the DB2 Setup wizard, you can create the following users and groups during installation.
Instance owner The DB2 instance is created in the instance owner home directory. This user ID controls all DB2 processes and owns all filesystems and devices used by the databases contained within the instance. The default user is db2inst1 and the default group is db2iadm1. The default name is db2inst1. If that user name already exists, the DB2 Setup wizard searches through user names db2inst2, db2inst3, and so on. The search continues until a user name is identified that is not already an existing user on the system as the default instance owner ID.
If you choose to proceed this user is created by the DB2 Setup wizard. However, you also have a choice to specify any existing user as the instance owner. This method for user name creation also applies to the creation of fenced users and DB2 administration server users. Fenced user The fenced user is used to run user defined functions UDFs and stored procedures outside of the address space used by the DB2 database. The default user is db2fenc1 and the default group is db2fadm1.
If you do not need this level of security, for example in a test environment, you can use your instance owner as your fenced user. The default user is dasusr1 and the default group is dasadm1. There is only one DAS per computer. One DAS services one or more database instances, including database instances that belong to different installations.
However, for database instances whose release level is higher than the release level of the DAS, the DAS must be migrated to a higher level. The DAS release level must be as high or higher than the release level of any of the database instances it services. Use software programs that use the Secure Shell protocol for remote administration.
User ID restrictions User IDs have the following restrictions and requirements: v Must have a primary group other than guests, admins, users, and local. In multiple member environments, each member has a pair of FCM daemons to support communication between members that is related to agent requests. One daemon is for sending communications, and the other is for receiving. These daemons and supporting infrastructure are activated when an instance is started.
FCM communication is also used for agents working within the same member; this type of communication is also known as intra-member communication. The FCM daemon collects information about communication activities. You can obtain information about FCM communications by using the database system monitor.
If communications fail between members or if they re-establish communications, the FCM daemons update monitor elements with this information. The FCM daemons also trigger the appropriate action for this event. An example of an appropriate action is the rollback of an affected transaction. You can use the database system monitor to help you set the FCM configuration parameters.
Centralized user-management considerations Linux and UNIX In environments that include security software, there are some installation considerations. Note: The DB2 installation cannot update or create users and groups if they are controlled outside of the operating system.
For example, LDAP can be used to control users and groups outside of the operating system. At instance creation, without a security component present, the instance owner's group list is modified to include that of the database administrative server DAS user's primary group, if the DAS is created.
If the instance creation program is unable to modify these properties, it reports that it could not. The warning message provides the necessary information to manually make the changes. These considerations hold true for any environment in which an external security program does not allow the DB2 installation or instance creation programs to modify user characteristics.
Before you begin You have already obtained your DB2 database product installation image. Enter the following command: ftp yourserver. Enter your user ID and password. Mount the appropriate product DVD.
Export the directory where you mounted the DVD. If you want, you can create them ahead of time. Preparing to install DB2 database servers. Before you begin To perform this task, you must have root user authority to create users and groups.
About this task Three users and groups are required. The user and group names used in the following instructions are documented in the following table. You can specify your own user and group names if they adhere to system naming rules and DB2 naming rules.
The user IDs you create will be required to complete subsequent setup tasks. Table 4. Default users and groups User. Log in as a user with root user authority. Enter the appropriate commands for your operating system. Note: These command line examples do not contain passwords. They are examples only. You can use the passwd username command from the command line to set the password. HP-UX operating systems To create groups on HP-UX, enter the following commands: groupadd -g db2iadm1 groupadd -g db2fsdm1 groupadd -g dasadm1.
Linux operating systems To create groups on Linux operating systems, enter the following commands: groupadd -g db2iadm1 groupadd -g db2fsdm1 groupadd -g dasadm1. Solaris operating systems To create groups on Solaris, enter the following commands: groupadd -g db2iadm1 groupadd -g db2fsdm1 groupadd -g dasadm1. Creating an instance using db2icrt A DB2 instance is an environment in which you store data and run applications.
Use the db2icrt command to create an instance. Note: If the DB2 fault monitor is turned on, the DB2 instance is started automatically when the db2icrt command finishes running. You can stop the instance by using the db2stop command. Procedure To create an instance using db2icrt: 1.
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